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Large-scale optical switches by thermo-optic waveguide lens
Tao Chen, Zhangqi Dang, Zeyu Deng, Shijie Ke, Zhenming Ding, Ziyang Zhang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00131-w
摘要:

Optical switches are desired in telecom and datacom as an upgrade to electrical ones for lower power consumption and expenses while improving bandwidth and network transparency. Compact, integrated optical switches are attractive thanks to their scalability, readiness for mass production, and robustness against mechanical disturbances. The basic unit relies mostly on a microring resonator or a Mach–Zehnder interferometer for binary “bar” and “cross” switching. Such single-mode structures are often wavelength / polarization dependent, sensitive to phase errors and loss-prone. Furthermore, when they are cascaded to a network, the number of control units grows quickly with the port count, causing high complexity in electronic wiring and drive circuit integration. Herein, we propose a new switching method by thermo-optic waveguide lens. Essentially, this multimode waveguide forms a square law medium by a pair of heater electrodes and focuses light within a chip by robust 1 × 1 imaging. A 1 × 24 basic switch is demonstrated with 32 electrodes and only two are biased at a time for a chosen output. By two-level cascading, the switch expands to 576 ports and only four electrodes are needed for one path. The chips are fabricated on wafer scale in a low-budget laboratory without resorting to foundries. Yet, the performance goes beyond state of the art for low insertion loss, low wavelength dependence and low polarization dependence. This work provides an original, alternative, and practical route to construct large-scale optical switches, enabling broad applications in telecom, datacom and photonic computing.

Optical switches are desired in telecom and datacom as an upgrade to electrical ones for lower power consumption and expenses while improving bandwidth and network transparency. Compact, integrated optical switches are attractive thanks to their scalability, readiness for mass production, and robustness against mechanical disturbances. The basic unit relies mostly on a microring resonator or a Mach–Zehnder interferometer for binary “bar” and “cross” switching. Such single-mode structures are often wavelength / polarization dependent, sensitive to phase errors and loss-prone. Furthermore, when they are cascaded to a network, the number of control units grows quickly with the port count, causing high complexity in electronic wiring and drive circuit integration. Herein, we propose a new switching method by thermo-optic waveguide lens. Essentially, this multimode waveguide forms a square law medium by a pair of heater electrodes and focuses light within a chip by robust 1 × 1 imaging. A 1 × 24 basic switch is demonstrated with 32 electrodes and only two are biased at a time for a chosen output. By two-level cascading, the switch expands to 576 ports and only four electrodes are needed for one path. The chips are fabricated on wafer scale in a low-budget laboratory without resorting to foundries. Yet, the performance goes beyond state of the art for low insertion loss, low wavelength dependence and low polarization dependence. This work provides an original, alternative, and practical route to construct large-scale optical switches, enabling broad applications in telecom, datacom and photonic computing.

High-dimensional Poincaré beams generated through cascaded metasurfaces for high-security optical encryption
Jitao Ji, Chen Chen, Jiacheng Sun, Xin Ye, Zhizhang Wang, Jian Li, Junyi Wang, Wange Song, Chunyu Huang, Kai Qiu, Shining Zhu, Tao Li
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00125-8
摘要:

Optical encryption plays an increasingly important role in the field of information security owing to its parallel processing capability and low power consumption. Employing the ultrathin metasurfaces in optical encryption has promoted the miniaturization and multifunctionality of encryption systems. Nevertheless, with the few number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) multiplexed by single metasurface, both key space and encoding space are limited. To address this issue, we propose a high-security and large-capacity optical encryption scheme based on perfect high-dimensional Poincaré beams with expanded DoFs. By cascading two arrayed metasurfaces, more beam properties can be independently engineered, which gives rise to the extensively expanded key and encoding spaces. Our work provides a promising strategy for optical encryption with high security level and large information capacity and might facilitate the applications of Poincaré beams in optical communications and quantum information.

Optical encryption plays an increasingly important role in the field of information security owing to its parallel processing capability and low power consumption. Employing the ultrathin metasurfaces in optical encryption has promoted the miniaturization and multifunctionality of encryption systems. Nevertheless, with the few number of degrees of freedom (DoFs) multiplexed by single metasurface, both key space and encoding space are limited. To address this issue, we propose a high-security and large-capacity optical encryption scheme based on perfect high-dimensional Poincaré beams with expanded DoFs. By cascading two arrayed metasurfaces, more beam properties can be independently engineered, which gives rise to the extensively expanded key and encoding spaces. Our work provides a promising strategy for optical encryption with high security level and large information capacity and might facilitate the applications of Poincaré beams in optical communications and quantum information.

Three-dimensional dipole orientation mapping with high temporal-spatial resolution using polarization modulation
Suyi Zhong, Liang Qiao, Xichuan Ge, Xinzhu Xu, Yuzhe Fu, Shu Gao, Karl Zhanghao, Huiwen Hao, Wenyi Wang, Meiqi Li, Peng Xi
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00127-6
摘要:

Fluorescence polarization microscopy is widely used in biology for molecular orientation properties. However, due to the limited temporal resolution of single-molecule orientation localization microscopy and the limited orientation dimension of polarization modulation techniques, achieving simultaneous high temporal-spatial resolution mapping of the three-dimensional (3D) orientation of fluorescent dipoles remains an outstanding problem. Here, we present a super-resolution 3D orientation mapping (3DOM) microscope that resolves 3D orientation by extracting phase information of the six polarization modulation components in reciprocal space. 3DOM achieves an azimuthal precision of 2° and a polar precision of 3° with spatial resolution of up to 128 nm in the experiments. We validate that 3DOM not only reveals the heterogeneity of the milk fat globule membrane, but also elucidates the 3D structure of biological filaments, including the 3D spatial conformation of λ-DNA and the structural disorder of actin filaments. Furthermore, 3DOM images the dipole dynamics of microtubules labeled with green fluorescent protein in live U2OS cells, reporting dynamic 3D orientation variations. Given its easy integration into existing wide-field microscopes, we expect the 3DOM microscope to provide a multi-view versatile strategy for investigating molecular structure and dynamics in biological macromolecules across multiple spatial and temporal scales.

Fluorescence polarization microscopy is widely used in biology for molecular orientation properties. However, due to the limited temporal resolution of single-molecule orientation localization microscopy and the limited orientation dimension of polarization modulation techniques, achieving simultaneous high temporal-spatial resolution mapping of the three-dimensional (3D) orientation of fluorescent dipoles remains an outstanding problem. Here, we present a super-resolution 3D orientation mapping (3DOM) microscope that resolves 3D orientation by extracting phase information of the six polarization modulation components in reciprocal space. 3DOM achieves an azimuthal precision of 2° and a polar precision of 3° with spatial resolution of up to 128 nm in the experiments. We validate that 3DOM not only reveals the heterogeneity of the milk fat globule membrane, but also elucidates the 3D structure of biological filaments, including the 3D spatial conformation of λ-DNA and the structural disorder of actin filaments. Furthermore, 3DOM images the dipole dynamics of microtubules labeled with green fluorescent protein in live U2OS cells, reporting dynamic 3D orientation variations. Given its easy integration into existing wide-field microscopes, we expect the 3DOM microscope to provide a multi-view versatile strategy for investigating molecular structure and dynamics in biological macromolecules across multiple spatial and temporal scales.

Multiplexing near- and far-field functionalities with high-efficiency bi-channel metasurfaces
Changhong Dai, Tong Liu, Dongyi Wang, Lei Zhou
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00128-5
摘要:

Propagating waves and surface waves are two distinct types of light-transporting modes, the free control of which are both highly desired in integration photonics. However, previously realized devices are bulky in sizes, inefficient, and/or can only achieve one type of light-manipulation functionality with a single device. Here, we propose a generic approach to design bi-channel meta-devices, constructed by carefully selected meta-atoms possessing reflection phases of both structural-resonance and geometric origins, which can exhibit two distinct light-manipulation functionalities in near-field (NF) and far-field (FF) channels, respectively. After characterizing the scattering properties of basic meta-atoms and briefly stating the theoretical strategy, we design/fabricate three different meta-devices and experimentally characterize their bi-channel wave-control functionalities in the telecom regime. Our experiments show that the first two devices can multiplex the generations of NF and FF optical vortices with different topological charges, while the third one exhibits anomalous surface plasmon polariton focusing in the NF and hologram formation in the FF simultaneously. Our results expand the wave-control functionalities of metasurfaces to all wave-transporting channels, which may inspire many exciting applications in integration optics.

Propagating waves and surface waves are two distinct types of light-transporting modes, the free control of which are both highly desired in integration photonics. However, previously realized devices are bulky in sizes, inefficient, and/or can only achieve one type of light-manipulation functionality with a single device. Here, we propose a generic approach to design bi-channel meta-devices, constructed by carefully selected meta-atoms possessing reflection phases of both structural-resonance and geometric origins, which can exhibit two distinct light-manipulation functionalities in near-field (NF) and far-field (FF) channels, respectively. After characterizing the scattering properties of basic meta-atoms and briefly stating the theoretical strategy, we design/fabricate three different meta-devices and experimentally characterize their bi-channel wave-control functionalities in the telecom regime. Our experiments show that the first two devices can multiplex the generations of NF and FF optical vortices with different topological charges, while the third one exhibits anomalous surface plasmon polariton focusing in the NF and hologram formation in the FF simultaneously. Our results expand the wave-control functionalities of metasurfaces to all wave-transporting channels, which may inspire many exciting applications in integration optics.

Ultra-wideband terahertz fingerprint enhancement sensing and inversion model supported by single-pixel reconfigurable graphene metasurface
Bingwei Liu, Yan Peng, YuFan Hao, Yiming Zhu, Shengjiang Chang, Songlin Zhuang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00129-4
摘要:

The molecular fingerprint sensing technology based on metasurface has unique attraction in the biomedical field. However, in the terahertz (THz) band, existing metasurface designs based on multi-pixel or angle multiplexing usually require more analyte amount or possess a narrower tuning bandwidth. Here, we propose a novel single-pixel graphene metasurface. Based on the synchronous voltage tuning, this metasurface enables ultra-wideband (

\begin{document}$ \sim $\end{document}

1.5 THz) fingerprint enhancement sensing of trace analytes, including chiral optical isomers, with a limit of detection (LoD) ≤ 0.64 μg/mm2. The enhancement of the fingerprint signal (

\begin{document}$ \sim $\end{document}

17.4 dB) originates from the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect excited by the metasurface, and the ideal overlap between the light field constrained by single-layer graphene (SLG) and ultra-thin analyte. Meanwhile, due to the unique nonlinear enhancement mechanism in graphene tuning, the absorption envelope distortion is inevitable. To solve this problem, a universal fingerprint spectrum inversion model is developed for the first time, and the restoration of standard fingerprints reaches Rmax2 ≥ 0.99. In addition, the asynchronous voltage tuning of the metasurface provides an opportunity for realizing the dynamic reconfiguration of EIT resonance and the slow light modulation in the broadband range. This work builds a bridge for ultra-wideband THz fingerprint sensing of trace analytes, and has potential applications in active spatial light modulators, slow light devices and dynamic imaging equipments.

The molecular fingerprint sensing technology based on metasurface has unique attraction in the biomedical field. However, in the terahertz (THz) band, existing metasurface designs based on multi-pixel or angle multiplexing usually require more analyte amount or possess a narrower tuning bandwidth. Here, we propose a novel single-pixel graphene metasurface. Based on the synchronous voltage tuning, this metasurface enables ultra-wideband (

\begin{document}$ \sim $\end{document}

1.5 THz) fingerprint enhancement sensing of trace analytes, including chiral optical isomers, with a limit of detection (LoD) ≤ 0.64 μg/mm2. The enhancement of the fingerprint signal (

$ \sim $

17.4 dB) originates from the electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) effect excited by the metasurface, and the ideal overlap between the light field constrained by single-layer graphene (SLG) and ultra-thin analyte. Meanwhile, due to the unique nonlinear enhancement mechanism in graphene tuning, the absorption envelope distortion is inevitable. To solve this problem, a universal fingerprint spectrum inversion model is developed for the first time, and the restoration of standard fingerprints reaches Rmax2 ≥ 0.99. In addition, the asynchronous voltage tuning of the metasurface provides an opportunity for realizing the dynamic reconfiguration of EIT resonance and the slow light modulation in the broadband range. This work builds a bridge for ultra-wideband THz fingerprint sensing of trace analytes, and has potential applications in active spatial light modulators, slow light devices and dynamic imaging equipments.

Brillouin microscopy monitors rapid responses in subcellular compartments
Zachary N. Coker, Maria Troyanova-Wood, Zachary A. Steelman, Bennett L. Ibey, Joel N. Bixler, Marlan O. Scully, Vladislav V. Yakovlev
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00123-w
摘要:

Measurements and imaging of the mechanical response of biological cells are critical for understanding the mechanisms of many diseases, and for fundamental studies of energy, signal and force transduction. The recent emergence of Brillouin microscopy as a powerful non-contact, label-free way to non-invasively and non-destructively assess local viscoelastic properties provides an opportunity to expand the scope of biomechanical research to the sub-cellular level. Brillouin spectroscopy has recently been validated through static measurements of cell viscoelastic properties, however, fast (sub-second) measurements of sub-cellular cytomechanical changes have yet to be reported. In this report, we utilize a custom multimodal spectroscopy system to monitor for the very first time the rapid viscoelastic response of cells and subcellular structures to a short-duration electrical impulse. The cytomechanical response of three subcellular structures - cytoplasm, nucleoplasm, and nucleoli - were monitored, showing distinct mechanical changes despite an identical stimulus. Through this pioneering transformative study, we demonstrate the capability of Brillouin spectroscopy to measure rapid, real-time biomechanical changes within distinct subcellular compartments. Our results support the promising future of Brillouin spectroscopy within the broad scope of cellular biomechanics.

Measurements and imaging of the mechanical response of biological cells are critical for understanding the mechanisms of many diseases, and for fundamental studies of energy, signal and force transduction. The recent emergence of Brillouin microscopy as a powerful non-contact, label-free way to non-invasively and non-destructively assess local viscoelastic properties provides an opportunity to expand the scope of biomechanical research to the sub-cellular level. Brillouin spectroscopy has recently been validated through static measurements of cell viscoelastic properties, however, fast (sub-second) measurements of sub-cellular cytomechanical changes have yet to be reported. In this report, we utilize a custom multimodal spectroscopy system to monitor for the very first time the rapid viscoelastic response of cells and subcellular structures to a short-duration electrical impulse. The cytomechanical response of three subcellular structures - cytoplasm, nucleoplasm, and nucleoli - were monitored, showing distinct mechanical changes despite an identical stimulus. Through this pioneering transformative study, we demonstrate the capability of Brillouin spectroscopy to measure rapid, real-time biomechanical changes within distinct subcellular compartments. Our results support the promising future of Brillouin spectroscopy within the broad scope of cellular biomechanics.

Three-channel robust optical encryption via engineering coherence Stokes vector of partially coherent light
Yonglei Liu, Zhen Dong, Yimeng Zhu, Haiyun Wang, Fei Wang, Yahong Chen, Yangjian Cai
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00126-7
摘要:

Optical encryption strategies utilizing fully coherent light have been widely explored but often face challenges such as speckle noise and beam instabilities. In this work, we introduce a novel protocol for multi-channel optical information encoding and encryption using vectorial spatial coherence engineering of a partially coherent light beam. By characterizing the beam’s spatial coherence structure with a

\begin{document}$ 2 \times 2 $\end{document}

coherence matrix, we demonstrate independent control over the three components of the coherence Stokes vector. This allows for three-channel optical information encoding and encryption, with applications in color image representation. Unlike existing methods based on fully coherent light modulations, our approach utilizes a two-point dependent coherence Stokes vector, proving resilient to random noise in experimental scenarios. Our findings provide a robust foundation for higher-dimensional optical encoding and encryption, addressing limitations associated with partially coherent light in complex environments.

Optical encryption strategies utilizing fully coherent light have been widely explored but often face challenges such as speckle noise and beam instabilities. In this work, we introduce a novel protocol for multi-channel optical information encoding and encryption using vectorial spatial coherence engineering of a partially coherent light beam. By characterizing the beam’s spatial coherence structure with a

\begin{document}$ 2 \times 2 $\end{document}

coherence matrix, we demonstrate independent control over the three components of the coherence Stokes vector. This allows for three-channel optical information encoding and encryption, with applications in color image representation. Unlike existing methods based on fully coherent light modulations, our approach utilizes a two-point dependent coherence Stokes vector, proving resilient to random noise in experimental scenarios. Our findings provide a robust foundation for higher-dimensional optical encoding and encryption, addressing limitations associated with partially coherent light in complex environments.

Visualizing cortical blood perfusion after photothrombotic stroke in vivo by needle-shaped beam optical coherence tomography angiography
Xiangyu Guo, Jingjing Zhao, Liqun Sun, Varun Gupta, Lin Du, Komal Sharma, Aidan Van Vleck, Kaitlyn Liang, Liangcai Cao, Lingjie Kong, Yuanmu Yang, Yong Huang, Adam de la Zerda, Guofan Jin
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00124-9
摘要:

Optical imaging techniques provide low-cost, non-radiative images with high spatiotemporal resolution, making them advantageous for long-term dynamic observation of blood perfusion in stroke research and other brain studies compared to non-optical methods. However, high-resolution imaging in optical microscopy fundamentally requires a tight optical focus, and thus a limited depth of field (DOF). Consequently, large-scale, non-stitched, high-resolution images of curved surfaces, like brains, are difficult to acquire without z-axis scanning. To overcome this limitation, we developed a needle-shaped beam optical coherence tomography angiography (NB-OCTA) system, and for the first time, achieved a volumetric resolution of less than 8 μm in a non-stitched volume space of 6.4 mm × 4 mm × 620 μm in vivo. This system captures the distribution of blood vessels at 3.4-times larger depths than normal OCTA equipped with a Gaussian beam (GB-OCTA). We then employed NB-OCTA to perform long-term observation of cortical blood perfusion after stroke in vivo, and quantitatively analyzed the vessel area density (VAD) and the diameters of representative vessels in different regions over 10 days, revealing different spatiotemporal dynamics in the acute, sub-acute and chronic phase of post-ischemic revascularization. Benefiting from our NB-OCTA, we revealed that the recovery process is not only the result of spontaneous reperfusion, but also the formation of new vessels. This study provides visual and mechanistic insights into strokes and helps to deepen our understanding of the spontaneous response of brain after stroke.

Optical imaging techniques provide low-cost, non-radiative images with high spatiotemporal resolution, making them advantageous for long-term dynamic observation of blood perfusion in stroke research and other brain studies compared to non-optical methods. However, high-resolution imaging in optical microscopy fundamentally requires a tight optical focus, and thus a limited depth of field (DOF). Consequently, large-scale, non-stitched, high-resolution images of curved surfaces, like brains, are difficult to acquire without z-axis scanning. To overcome this limitation, we developed a needle-shaped beam optical coherence tomography angiography (NB-OCTA) system, and for the first time, achieved a volumetric resolution of less than 8 μm in a non-stitched volume space of 6.4 mm × 4 mm × 620 μm in vivo. This system captures the distribution of blood vessels at 3.4-times larger depths than normal OCTA equipped with a Gaussian beam (GB-OCTA). We then employed NB-OCTA to perform long-term observation of cortical blood perfusion after stroke in vivo, and quantitatively analyzed the vessel area density (VAD) and the diameters of representative vessels in different regions over 10 days, revealing different spatiotemporal dynamics in the acute, sub-acute and chronic phase of post-ischemic revascularization. Benefiting from our NB-OCTA, we revealed that the recovery process is not only the result of spontaneous reperfusion, but also the formation of new vessels. This study provides visual and mechanistic insights into strokes and helps to deepen our understanding of the spontaneous response of brain after stroke.

Ultrafast laser one-step construction of 3D micro-/nanostructures achieving high-performance zinc metal anodes
Yanan Liu, Ye Ding, Zeping Liu, Xingchen Li, Sichao Tian, Lishuang Fan, Jichang Xie, Liangliang Xu, Jinwoo Lee, Jian Li, Lijun Yang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00122-x
摘要:

Aqueous zinc-ion batteries provide a most promising alternative to the existing lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity, intrinsic safety, and low cost. However, commercializing aqueous zinc-ion batteries suffer from dendritic growth and side reactions on the surface of metallic zinc, resulting in poor reversibility. To overcome this critical challenge, here, we report a one-step ultrafast laser processing method for fabricating three-dimensional micro-/nanostructures on zinc anodes to optimize zinc nucleation and deposition processes. It is demonstrated that the three-dimensional micro-/nanostructure with increased specific surface area significantly reduces nucleation overpotential, as well as preferentially absorbs zinc ions to prevent dendritic protuberances and corrosion. As a result, the presence of three-dimensional micro-/nanostructures on the zinc metal delivers stable zinc plating/stripping beyond 2500 h (2 mA cm-2/1 mAh cm-2) in symmetric cells, a high Coulombic efficiency (99.71%) in half cells, and moreover an improved capacity retention (71.8%) is also observed in full cells. Equally intriguingly, the pouch cell with three-dimensional micro-/nanostructures can operate across various bending states without severely compromising performance. This work provides an effective strategy to construct ultrafine and high-precision three-dimensional micro-/nanostructures achieving high-performance zinc metal anodes and is expected to be of immediate benefit to other metal-based electrodes.

Aqueous zinc-ion batteries provide a most promising alternative to the existing lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity, intrinsic safety, and low cost. However, commercializing aqueous zinc-ion batteries suffer from dendritic growth and side reactions on the surface of metallic zinc, resulting in poor reversibility. To overcome this critical challenge, here, we report a one-step ultrafast laser processing method for fabricating three-dimensional micro-/nanostructures on zinc anodes to optimize zinc nucleation and deposition processes. It is demonstrated that the three-dimensional micro-/nanostructure with increased specific surface area significantly reduces nucleation overpotential, as well as preferentially absorbs zinc ions to prevent dendritic protuberances and corrosion. As a result, the presence of three-dimensional micro-/nanostructures on the zinc metal delivers stable zinc plating/stripping beyond 2500 h (2 mA cm-2/1 mAh cm-2) in symmetric cells, a high Coulombic efficiency (99.71%) in half cells, and moreover an improved capacity retention (71.8%) is also observed in full cells. Equally intriguingly, the pouch cell with three-dimensional micro-/nanostructures can operate across various bending states without severely compromising performance. This work provides an effective strategy to construct ultrafine and high-precision three-dimensional micro-/nanostructures achieving high-performance zinc metal anodes and is expected to be of immediate benefit to other metal-based electrodes.

Vacuum-ultraviolet (λ < 200 nm) photodetector array
Siqi Zhu, Zhuogeng Lin, Zhao Wang, Lemin Jia, Naiji Zhang, Wei Zheng
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00120-z
摘要:

The vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) imaging photodetector (PD) based on the wide bandgap semiconductor (WBGS) can realize a more detailed observation of solar storms than the silicon ones. Here, an 8 × 8 VUV PD array based on the semiconductor AlN with an ultra-wide bandgap is presented, exhibiting the shortest cutoff wavelength (203 nm) reported so far. The PD array with a Pt/AlN/SiC/Ti/Au photovoltaic structure shows an excellent selective response to VUV light, an extremely low dark current density of 2.85 × 10–11 A·cm−2@ -2 V, a responsivity of 0.054 A·W−1@ 0 V and an ultra-short rise time of 13 ns. Also, the clear boundaries and an obvious contrast between light and dark of the VUV image displayed in the imaging measurement indicate the good imaging ability of this PD array, which can be used for the imaging application with high signal-to-noise ratio and high response speed. These results provide rich experience for the development of VUV imaging PDs based on WBGSs both in their fabrication and the practical applications in VUV detection.

The vacuum-ultraviolet (VUV, 10–200 nm) imaging photodetector (PD) based on the wide bandgap semiconductor (WBGS) can realize a more detailed observation of solar storms than the silicon ones. Here, an 8 × 8 VUV PD array based on the semiconductor AlN with an ultra-wide bandgap is presented, exhibiting the shortest cutoff wavelength (203 nm) reported so far. The PD array with a Pt/AlN/SiC/Ti/Au photovoltaic structure shows an excellent selective response to VUV light, an extremely low dark current density of 2.85 × 10–11 A·cm−2@ -2 V, a responsivity of 0.054 A·W−1@ 0 V and an ultra-short rise time of 13 ns. Also, the clear boundaries and an obvious contrast between light and dark of the VUV image displayed in the imaging measurement indicate the good imaging ability of this PD array, which can be used for the imaging application with high signal-to-noise ratio and high response speed. These results provide rich experience for the development of VUV imaging PDs based on WBGSs both in their fabrication and the practical applications in VUV detection.

Self-supervised denoising for multimodal structured illumination microscopy enables long-term super-resolution live-cell imaging
Xingye Chen, Chang Qiao, Tao Jiang, Jiahao Liu, Quan Meng, Yunmin Zeng, Haoyu Chen, Hui Qiao, Dong Li, Jiamin Wu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00121-y
摘要:

Detection noise significantly degrades the quality of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) images, especially under low-light conditions. Although supervised learning based denoising methods have shown prominent advances in eliminating the noise-induced artifacts, the requirement of a large amount of high-quality training data severely limits their applications. Here we developed a pixel-realignment-based self-supervised denoising framework for SIM (PRS-SIM) that trains an SIM image denoiser with only noisy data and substantially removes the reconstruction artifacts. We demonstrated that PRS-SIM generates artifact-free images with 20-fold less fluorescence than ordinary imaging conditions while achieving comparable super-resolution capability to the ground truth (GT). Moreover, we developed an easy-to-use plugin that enables both training and implementation of PRS-SIM for multimodal SIM platforms including 2D/3D and linear/nonlinear SIM. With PRS-SIM, we achieved long-term super-resolution live-cell imaging of various vulnerable bioprocesses, revealing the clustered distribution of Clathrin-coated pits and detailed interaction dynamics of multiple organelles and the cytoskeleton.

Detection noise significantly degrades the quality of structured illumination microscopy (SIM) images, especially under low-light conditions. Although supervised learning based denoising methods have shown prominent advances in eliminating the noise-induced artifacts, the requirement of a large amount of high-quality training data severely limits their applications. Here we developed a pixel-realignment-based self-supervised denoising framework for SIM (PRS-SIM) that trains an SIM image denoiser with only noisy data and substantially removes the reconstruction artifacts. We demonstrated that PRS-SIM generates artifact-free images with 20-fold less fluorescence than ordinary imaging conditions while achieving comparable super-resolution capability to the ground truth (GT). Moreover, we developed an easy-to-use plugin that enables both training and implementation of PRS-SIM for multimodal SIM platforms including 2D/3D and linear/nonlinear SIM. With PRS-SIM, we achieved long-term super-resolution live-cell imaging of various vulnerable bioprocesses, revealing the clustered distribution of Clathrin-coated pits and detailed interaction dynamics of multiple organelles and the cytoskeleton.

Observation of single-molecule Raman spectroscopy enabled by synergic electromagnetic and chemical enhancement
Haiyao Yang, Haoran Mo, Jianzhi Zhang, Lihong Hong, Zhi-Yuan Li
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-024-00119-6
摘要:

There has been a long fundamental pursuit to enhance and levitate the Raman scattering signal intensity of molecule by a huge number of ~ 14–15 orders of magnitude, to the level comparable with the molecule fluorescence intensity and truly entering the regime of single-molecule Raman spectroscopy. In this work we report unambiguous observation of single-molecule Raman spectroscopy via synergic action of electromagnetic and chemical enhancement for rhodamine B (RhB) molecule absorbed within the plasmonic nanogap formed by gold nanoparticle sitting on the two-dimensional (2D) monolayer WS2 and 2 nm SiO2 coated gold thin film. Raman spectroscopy down to an extremely dilute value of 10–18 mol/L can still be clearly visible, and the statistical enhancement factor could reach 16 orders of magnitude compared with the reference detection sample of silicon plate. The electromagnetic enhancement comes from local surface plasmon resonance induced at the nanogap, which could reach ~ 10–11 orders of magnitude, while the chemical enhancement comes from monolayer WS2 2D material, which could reach 4–5 orders of magnitudes. This synergic route of Raman enhancement devices could open up a new frontier of single molecule science, allowing detection, identification, and monitor of single molecules and their spatial–temporal evolution under various internal and external stimuli.

There has been a long fundamental pursuit to enhance and levitate the Raman scattering signal intensity of molecule by a huge number of ~ 14–15 orders of magnitude, to the level comparable with the molecule fluorescence intensity and truly entering the regime of single-molecule Raman spectroscopy. In this work we report unambiguous observation of single-molecule Raman spectroscopy via synergic action of electromagnetic and chemical enhancement for rhodamine B (RhB) molecule absorbed within the plasmonic nanogap formed by gold nanoparticle sitting on the two-dimensional (2D) monolayer WS2 and 2 nm SiO2 coated gold thin film. Raman spectroscopy down to an extremely dilute value of 10–18 mol/L can still be clearly visible, and the statistical enhancement factor could reach 16 orders of magnitude compared with the reference detection sample of silicon plate. The electromagnetic enhancement comes from local surface plasmon resonance induced at the nanogap, which could reach ~ 10–11 orders of magnitude, while the chemical enhancement comes from monolayer WS2 2D material, which could reach 4–5 orders of magnitudes. This synergic route of Raman enhancement devices could open up a new frontier of single molecule science, allowing detection, identification, and monitor of single molecules and their spatial–temporal evolution under various internal and external stimuli.

Reconfigurable flexible metasurfaces: from fundamentals towards biomedical applications
Jiangtao Tian, Wenhan Cao
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00116-1
摘要:

Metamaterials and metasurfaces of artificial micro-/nano- structures functioning from microwave, terahertz, to infrared regime have enabled numerous applications from bioimaging, cancer detection and immunoassay to on-body health monitoring systems in the past few decades. Recently, the trend of turning metasurface devices flexible and stretchable has arisen in that the flexibility and stretchability not only makes the device more biocompatible and wearable, but also provides unique control and manipulation of the structural and geometrical reconfiguration of the metasurface in a creative manner, resulting in an extraordinary tunability for biomedical sensing and detection purposes. In this Review, we summarize recent advances in the design and fabrication techniques of stretchable reconfigurable metasurfaces and their applications to date thereof, and put forward a perspective for future development of stretchable reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces.

Metamaterials and metasurfaces of artificial micro-/nano- structures functioning from microwave, terahertz, to infrared regime have enabled numerous applications from bioimaging, cancer detection and immunoassay to on-body health monitoring systems in the past few decades. Recently, the trend of turning metasurface devices flexible and stretchable has arisen in that the flexibility and stretchability not only makes the device more biocompatible and wearable, but also provides unique control and manipulation of the structural and geometrical reconfiguration of the metasurface in a creative manner, resulting in an extraordinary tunability for biomedical sensing and detection purposes. In this Review, we summarize recent advances in the design and fabrication techniques of stretchable reconfigurable metasurfaces and their applications to date thereof, and put forward a perspective for future development of stretchable reconfigurable metamaterials and metasurfaces.

Surmounting photon limits and motion artifacts for biological dynamics imaging via dual-perspective self-supervised learning
Binglin Shen, Chenggui Luo, Wen Pang, Yajing Jiang, Wenbo Wu, Rui Hu, Junle Qu, Bobo Gu, Liwei Liu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00117-0
摘要:

Visualizing rapid biological dynamics like neuronal signaling and microvascular flow is crucial yet challenging due to photon noise and motion artifacts. Here we present a deep learning framework for enhancing the spatiotemporal relations of optical microscopy data. Our approach leverages correlations of mirrored perspectives from conjugated scan paths, training a model to suppress noise and motion blur by restoring degraded spatial features. Quantitative validation on vibrational calcium imaging validates significant gains in spatiotemporal correlation (2.2×), signal-to-noise ratio (9–12 dB), structural similarity (6.6×), and motion tolerance compared to raw data. We further apply the framework to diverse in vivo experiments from mouse cerebral hemodynamics to zebrafish cardiac dynamics. This approach enables the clear visualization of the rapid nutrient flow (30 mm/s) in microcirculation and the systolic and diastolic processes of heartbeat (2.7 cycle/s), as well as cellular and vascular structure in deep cortex. Unlike techniques relying on temporal correlations, learning inherent spatial priors avoids motion-induced artifacts. This self-supervised strategy flexibly enhances live microscopy under photon-limited and motion-prone regimes.

Visualizing rapid biological dynamics like neuronal signaling and microvascular flow is crucial yet challenging due to photon noise and motion artifacts. Here we present a deep learning framework for enhancing the spatiotemporal relations of optical microscopy data. Our approach leverages correlations of mirrored perspectives from conjugated scan paths, training a model to suppress noise and motion blur by restoring degraded spatial features. Quantitative validation on vibrational calcium imaging validates significant gains in spatiotemporal correlation (2.2×), signal-to-noise ratio (9–12 dB), structural similarity (6.6×), and motion tolerance compared to raw data. We further apply the framework to diverse in vivo experiments from mouse cerebral hemodynamics to zebrafish cardiac dynamics. This approach enables the clear visualization of the rapid nutrient flow (30 mm/s) in microcirculation and the systolic and diastolic processes of heartbeat (2.7 cycle/s), as well as cellular and vascular structure in deep cortex. Unlike techniques relying on temporal correlations, learning inherent spatial priors avoids motion-induced artifacts. This self-supervised strategy flexibly enhances live microscopy under photon-limited and motion-prone regimes.

Deep tissue super-resolution imaging with adaptive optical two-photon multifocal structured illumination microscopy
Chenshuang Zhang, Bin Yu, Fangrui Lin, Soham Samanta, Huanhuan Yu, Wei Zhang, Yingying Jing, Chunfeng Shang, Danying Lin, Ke Si, Wei Gong, Junle Qu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00115-2
摘要:

Visualization of axons and dendritic spines is crucial in neuroscience research. However, traditional microscopy is limited by diffraction-limited resolution and shallow imaging depth, making it difficult to study neuronal dynamics. Two-photon multifocal structured illumination microscopy (2P-MSIM) provides super-resolution imaging along with a reasonably good penetration, but it is vulnerable to optical aberrations in deep tissues. Herein we present a novel non-inertial scanning 2P-MSIM system incorporated with adaptive optics (AO) which allows for super-resolution imaging with effective aberration correction. Our strategy is designed to correct both laser and fluorescence paths simultaneously using a spatial light modulator and a deformable mirror respectively, providing better results than the individual path corrections. The successful implementation of adaptive optical two-photon multifocal structured illumination microscopy (AO 2P-MSIM) has allowed for the super-resolution imaging of neuronal structures in a mouse brain slice at great depths and dynamic morphological characteristics of zebrafish motoneurons in vivo.

Visualization of axons and dendritic spines is crucial in neuroscience research. However, traditional microscopy is limited by diffraction-limited resolution and shallow imaging depth, making it difficult to study neuronal dynamics. Two-photon multifocal structured illumination microscopy (2P-MSIM) provides super-resolution imaging along with a reasonably good penetration, but it is vulnerable to optical aberrations in deep tissues. Herein we present a novel non-inertial scanning 2P-MSIM system incorporated with adaptive optics (AO) which allows for super-resolution imaging with effective aberration correction. Our strategy is designed to correct both laser and fluorescence paths simultaneously using a spatial light modulator and a deformable mirror respectively, providing better results than the individual path corrections. The successful implementation of adaptive optical two-photon multifocal structured illumination microscopy (AO 2P-MSIM) has allowed for the super-resolution imaging of neuronal structures in a mouse brain slice at great depths and dynamic morphological characteristics of zebrafish motoneurons in vivo.

Chip-to-chip optical multimode communication with universal mode processors
Bo Wu, Wenkai Zhang, Hailong Zhou, Jianji Dong, Dongmei Huang, P. K. A. Wai, Xinliang Zhang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00114-3
摘要:

The increasing amount of data exchange requires higher-capacity optical communication links. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is considered as a promising technology to support the higher data throughput. In an MDM system, the mode generator and sorter are the backbone. However, most of the current schemes lack the programmability and universality, which makes the MDM link susceptible to the mode crosstalk and environmental disturbances. In this paper, we propose an intelligent multimode optical communication link using universal mode processing (generation and sorting) chips. The mode processor consists of a programmable 4 × 4 Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) network and can be intelligently configured to generate or sort both quasi linearly polarized (LP) modes and orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in any desired routing state. We experimentally establish a chip-to-chip MDM communication system. The mode basis can be freely switched between four LP modes and four OAM modes. We also demonstrate the multimode optical communication capability at a data rate of 25 Gbit/s. The proposed scheme shows significant advantages in terms of universality, intelligence, programmability and resistance to mode crosstalk, environmental disturbances, and fabrication errors, demonstrating that the MZI-based reconfigurable mode processor chip has great potential in long-distance chip-to-chip multimode optical communication systems.

The increasing amount of data exchange requires higher-capacity optical communication links. Mode division multiplexing (MDM) is considered as a promising technology to support the higher data throughput. In an MDM system, the mode generator and sorter are the backbone. However, most of the current schemes lack the programmability and universality, which makes the MDM link susceptible to the mode crosstalk and environmental disturbances. In this paper, we propose an intelligent multimode optical communication link using universal mode processing (generation and sorting) chips. The mode processor consists of a programmable 4 × 4 Mach Zehnder interferometer (MZI) network and can be intelligently configured to generate or sort both quasi linearly polarized (LP) modes and orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes in any desired routing state. We experimentally establish a chip-to-chip MDM communication system. The mode basis can be freely switched between four LP modes and four OAM modes. We also demonstrate the multimode optical communication capability at a data rate of 25 Gbit/s. The proposed scheme shows significant advantages in terms of universality, intelligence, programmability and resistance to mode crosstalk, environmental disturbances, and fabrication errors, demonstrating that the MZI-based reconfigurable mode processor chip has great potential in long-distance chip-to-chip multimode optical communication systems.

Ultrafast dissipative soliton generation in anomalous dispersion achieving high peak power beyond the limitation of cubic nonlinearity
Jinhwa Gene, Seung Kwan Kim, Sun Do Lim, Min Yong Jeon
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00112-5
摘要:
The maximum peak power of ultrafast mode-locked lasers has been limited by cubic nonlinearity, which collapses the mode-locked pulses and consequently leads to noisy operation or satellite pulses. In this paper, we propose a concept to achieve mode-locked pulses with high peak power beyond the limitation of cubic nonlinearity with the help of dissipative resonance between quintic nonlinear phase shifts and anomalous group velocity dispersion. We first conducted a numerical study to investigate the existence of high peak power ultrafast dissipative solitons in a fiber cavity with anomalous group velocity dispersion (U-DSAD) and found four unique characteristics. We then built long cavity ultrafast thulium-doped fiber lasers and verified that the properties of the generated mode-locked pulses match well with the U-DSAD characteristics found in the numerical study. The best-performing laser generated a peak power of 330 kW and a maximum pulse energy of 80 nJ with a pulse duration of 249 fs at a repetition rate of 428 kHz. Such a high peak power exceeds that of any previous mode-locked pulses generated from a single-mode fiber laser without post-treatment. We anticipate that the means to overcome cubic nonlinearity presented in this paper can give insight in various optical fields dealing with nonlinearity to find solutions beyond the inherent limitations. The maximum peak power of ultrafast mode-locked lasers has been limited by cubic nonlinearity, which collapses the mode-locked pulses and consequently leads to noisy operation or satellite pulses. In this paper, we propose a concept to achieve mode-locked pulses with high peak power beyond the limitation of cubic nonlinearity with the help of dissipative resonance between quintic nonlinear phase shifts and anomalous group velocity dispersion. We first conducted a numerical study to investigate the existence of high peak power ultrafast dissipative solitons in a fiber cavity with anomalous group velocity dispersion (U-DSAD) and found four unique characteristics. We then built long cavity ultrafast thulium-doped fiber lasers and verified that the properties of the generated mode-locked pulses match well with the U-DSAD characteristics found in the numerical study. The best-performing laser generated a peak power of 330 kW and a maximum pulse energy of 80 nJ with a pulse duration of 249 fs at a repetition rate of 428 kHz. Such a high peak power exceeds that of any previous mode-locked pulses generated from a single-mode fiber laser without post-treatment. We anticipate that the means to overcome cubic nonlinearity presented in this paper can give insight in various optical fields dealing with nonlinearity to find solutions beyond the inherent limitations.
Full degree-of-freedom polarization hologram by freeform exposure and inkjet printing
Jianghao Xiong, Haizheng Zhong, Dewen Cheng, Shin-Tson Wu, Yongtian Wang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00111-6
摘要:

Since the invention of holography by Dennis Gabor, the fabrication of holograms has mainly relied on direct recording of wavefront by engraving the intensity fringes of interfering electric fields into the holographic material. The degree-of-freedom (DoF) is often limited, especially for its usage as a holographic optical element in imaging or display systems, as what is recorded is what to use. In this work, based on the emerging self-assembled photo-aligned liquid crystal, a polarization hologram with full DoF for local manipulation of optical structure is demonstrated. The ability to record an arbitrary wavefront (in-plane DoF) is achieved by freeform surface exposure, while the local adjustment of deposited liquid crystal (out-of-plane DoF) is realized by inkjet printing. The methodology for designing and fabricating such a hologram is exemplified by building a full-color retinal scanning display without color crosstalk. Here, the arbitrary wavefront modulation capability helps to eliminate the aberrations caused by mismatched exposure and display wavelengths. The local liquid crystal adjustment ability enables the suppression of crosstalk by variation of chiral pitch and film thickness to tune the peak and valley of Bragg diffraction band. The demonstrated method is expected to greatly impact the fields of advanced imaging and display, such as augmented reality and virtual reality, that require optics with an ultrathin form factor and high degrees of design freedom simultaneously.

Since the invention of holography by Dennis Gabor, the fabrication of holograms has mainly relied on direct recording of wavefront by engraving the intensity fringes of interfering electric fields into the holographic material. The degree-of-freedom (DoF) is often limited, especially for its usage as a holographic optical element in imaging or display systems, as what is recorded is what to use. In this work, based on the emerging self-assembled photo-aligned liquid crystal, a polarization hologram with full DoF for local manipulation of optical structure is demonstrated. The ability to record an arbitrary wavefront (in-plane DoF) is achieved by freeform surface exposure, while the local adjustment of deposited liquid crystal (out-of-plane DoF) is realized by inkjet printing. The methodology for designing and fabricating such a hologram is exemplified by building a full-color retinal scanning display without color crosstalk. Here, the arbitrary wavefront modulation capability helps to eliminate the aberrations caused by mismatched exposure and display wavelengths. The local liquid crystal adjustment ability enables the suppression of crosstalk by variation of chiral pitch and film thickness to tune the peak and valley of Bragg diffraction band. The demonstrated method is expected to greatly impact the fields of advanced imaging and display, such as augmented reality and virtual reality, that require optics with an ultrathin form factor and high degrees of design freedom simultaneously.

Digital staining in optical microscopy using deep learning - a review
Lucas Kreiss, Shaowei Jiang, Xiang Li, Shiqi Xu, Kevin C. Zhou, Kyung Chul Lee, Alexander Mühlberg, Kanghyun Kim, Amey Chaware, Michael Ando, Laura Barisoni, Seung Ah Lee, Guoan Zheng, Kyle J. Lafata, Oliver Friedrich, Roarke Horstmeyer
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00113-4
摘要:

Until recently, conventional biochemical staining had the undisputed status as well-established benchmark for most biomedical problems related to clinical diagnostics, fundamental research and biotechnology. Despite this role as gold-standard, staining protocols face several challenges, such as a need for extensive, manual processing of samples, substantial time delays, altered tissue homeostasis, limited choice of contrast agents, 2D imaging instead of 3D tomography and many more. Label-free optical technologies, on the other hand, do not rely on exogenous and artificial markers, by exploiting intrinsic optical contrast mechanisms, where the specificity is typically less obvious to the human observer. Over the past few years, digital staining has emerged as a promising concept to use modern deep learning for the translation from optical contrast to established biochemical contrast of actual stainings. In this review article, we provide an in-depth analysis of the current state-of-the-art in this field, suggest methods of good practice, identify pitfalls and challenges and postulate promising advances towards potential future implementations and applications.

Until recently, conventional biochemical staining had the undisputed status as well-established benchmark for most biomedical problems related to clinical diagnostics, fundamental research and biotechnology. Despite this role as gold-standard, staining protocols face several challenges, such as a need for extensive, manual processing of samples, substantial time delays, altered tissue homeostasis, limited choice of contrast agents, 2D imaging instead of 3D tomography and many more. Label-free optical technologies, on the other hand, do not rely on exogenous and artificial markers, by exploiting intrinsic optical contrast mechanisms, where the specificity is typically less obvious to the human observer. Over the past few years, digital staining has emerged as a promising concept to use modern deep learning for the translation from optical contrast to established biochemical contrast of actual stainings. In this review article, we provide an in-depth analysis of the current state-of-the-art in this field, suggest methods of good practice, identify pitfalls and challenges and postulate promising advances towards potential future implementations and applications.

Transient replica symmetry breaking in Brillouin random fiber lasers
Liang Zhang, Jilin Zhang, Fufei Pang, Tingyun Wang, Liang Chen, Xiaoyi Bao
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00107-2
摘要:

Replica symmetry breaking (RSB), as a featured phase transition between paramagnetic and spin glass state in magnetic systems, has been predicted and validated among random laser-based complex systems, which involves numerous random modes interplayed via gain competition and exhibits disorder-induced frustration for glass behavior. However, the dynamics of RSB phase transition involving micro-state evolution of a photonic complex system have never been well investigated. Here, we report experimental evidence of transient RSB in a Brillouin random fiber laser (BRFL)-based photonic system through high-resolution unveiling of random laser mode landscape based on heterodyne technique. Thanks to the prolonged lifetime of activated random modes in BRFLs, an elaborated mapping of time-dependent statistics of the Parisi overlap parameter in both time and frequency domains was timely resolved, attributing to a compelling analogy between the transient RSB dynamics and the random mode evolution. These findings highlight that BRFL-based systems with the flexible harness of a customized photonic complex platform allow a superb opportunity for time-resolved transient RSB observation, opening new avenues in exploring fundamentals and application of complex systems and nonlinear phenomena.

Replica symmetry breaking (RSB), as a featured phase transition between paramagnetic and spin glass state in magnetic systems, has been predicted and validated among random laser-based complex systems, which involves numerous random modes interplayed via gain competition and exhibits disorder-induced frustration for glass behavior. However, the dynamics of RSB phase transition involving micro-state evolution of a photonic complex system have never been well investigated. Here, we report experimental evidence of transient RSB in a Brillouin random fiber laser (BRFL)-based photonic system through high-resolution unveiling of random laser mode landscape based on heterodyne technique. Thanks to the prolonged lifetime of activated random modes in BRFLs, an elaborated mapping of time-dependent statistics of the Parisi overlap parameter in both time and frequency domains was timely resolved, attributing to a compelling analogy between the transient RSB dynamics and the random mode evolution. These findings highlight that BRFL-based systems with the flexible harness of a customized photonic complex platform allow a superb opportunity for time-resolved transient RSB observation, opening new avenues in exploring fundamentals and application of complex systems and nonlinear phenomena.

Nonlinear plasmonics: second-harmonic generation and multiphoton photoluminescence
Jiyong Wang, Lei Zhang, Min Qiu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00106-3
摘要:

The study on the nonlinear optical responses arising from plasmonic nanoantennas, known as nonlinear plasmonics, has been massively investigated in recent years. Among the most basic nonlinear optical responses, second-harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton photoluminescence (MPL), two-photon photoluminescence in particular, has aroused extensive interests, due to their distinct properties of being ultrasensitive to the spatial symmetry and ultrafast response time of hot electrons. In this review, we give insights into fundamental roles dominating the radiations of such nonlinear optical processes and their recent research advances. Different from other reviews on nonlinear plasmonics, which mainly focused on parametric processes, this review pays equal attentions to the incoherent process of MPL. An in-depth description on the excitation and emission processes of MPL in accordance with recent studies is fully presented. By using the high ‘symmetry rule’ of SHG and ultrafast response time of MPL, advanced applications in surface enhanced spectroscopy, ultra-sensitive photodetector, biosensor and ultrafast laser pulses are highlighted in the end.

The study on the nonlinear optical responses arising from plasmonic nanoantennas, known as nonlinear plasmonics, has been massively investigated in recent years. Among the most basic nonlinear optical responses, second-harmonic generation (SHG) and multiphoton photoluminescence (MPL), two-photon photoluminescence in particular, has aroused extensive interests, due to their distinct properties of being ultrasensitive to the spatial symmetry and ultrafast response time of hot electrons. In this review, we give insights into fundamental roles dominating the radiations of such nonlinear optical processes and their recent research advances. Different from other reviews on nonlinear plasmonics, which mainly focused on parametric processes, this review pays equal attentions to the incoherent process of MPL. An in-depth description on the excitation and emission processes of MPL in accordance with recent studies is fully presented. By using the high ‘symmetry rule’ of SHG and ultrafast response time of MPL, advanced applications in surface enhanced spectroscopy, ultra-sensitive photodetector, biosensor and ultrafast laser pulses are highlighted in the end.

Correction: Frequency selective fingerprint sensor: the Terahertz unity platform for broadband chiral enantiomers multiplexed signals and narrowband molecular AIT enhancement
Jiaming Lyu, Shengyuan Shen, Lin Chen, Yiming Zhu, Songlin Zhuang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00110-7
摘要:
Integrated heterodyne laser Doppler vibrometer based on stress-optic frequency shift in silicon nitride
Adam Raptakis, Lefteris Gounaridis, Jörn P. Epping, Thi Lan Anh Tran, Thomas Aukes, Moritz Kleinert, Madeleine Weigel, Marco Wolfer, Alexander Draebenstedt, Christos Tsokos, Panos Groumas, Efstathios Andrianopoulos, Nikos Lyras, Dimitrios Nikolaidis, Elias Mylonas, Nikolaos Baxevanakis, Roberto Pessina, Erik Schreuder, Matthijn Dekkers, Volker Seyfried, Norbert Keil, René G. Heideman, Hercules Avramopoulos, Christos Kouloumentas
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00105-4
摘要:

We demonstrate a compact heterodyne Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) based on the realization of optical frequency shift in the silicon nitride photonic integration platform (TriPleX). We theoretically study, and experimentally evaluate two different photonic integrated optical frequency shifters (OFSs), utilizing serrodyne and single-sideband (SSB) modulation. Both OFSs employ stress-optic modulators (SOMs) based on the non-resonant piezoelectrical actuation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-films, deposited on top of the silicon nitride waveguides with a wafer-scale process. To improve the modulation bandwidth of the SOMs we investigate a novel configuration of the electrodes used for the actuation, where both electrodes are placed on top of the PZT layer. Using this top-top electrode configuration we report frequency shift of 100 kHz and 2.5 MHz, and suppression ratio of the unwanted sidebands of 22.1 dB and 39 dB, using the serrodyne and the SSB OFS, respectively. The best performing SOM structure induces 0.25π peak-to-peak sinusoidal phase-shift with 156 mW power dissipation at 2.5 MHz. We use the SSB-OFS in our compact LDV system to demonstrate vibration measurements in the kHz regime. The system comprises a dual-polarization coherent detector built in the PolyBoard platform, utilizing hybrid integration of InP photodiodes (PDs). High quality LDV performance with measurement of vibration frequencies up to several hundreds of kHz and displacement resolution of 10 pm are supported with our system.

We demonstrate a compact heterodyne Laser Doppler Vibrometer (LDV) based on the realization of optical frequency shift in the silicon nitride photonic integration platform (TriPleX). We theoretically study, and experimentally evaluate two different photonic integrated optical frequency shifters (OFSs), utilizing serrodyne and single-sideband (SSB) modulation. Both OFSs employ stress-optic modulators (SOMs) based on the non-resonant piezoelectrical actuation of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) thin-films, deposited on top of the silicon nitride waveguides with a wafer-scale process. To improve the modulation bandwidth of the SOMs we investigate a novel configuration of the electrodes used for the actuation, where both electrodes are placed on top of the PZT layer. Using this top-top electrode configuration we report frequency shift of 100 kHz and 2.5 MHz, and suppression ratio of the unwanted sidebands of 22.1 dB and 39 dB, using the serrodyne and the SSB OFS, respectively. The best performing SOM structure induces 0.25π peak-to-peak sinusoidal phase-shift with 156 mW power dissipation at 2.5 MHz. We use the SSB-OFS in our compact LDV system to demonstrate vibration measurements in the kHz regime. The system comprises a dual-polarization coherent detector built in the PolyBoard platform, utilizing hybrid integration of InP photodiodes (PDs). High quality LDV performance with measurement of vibration frequencies up to several hundreds of kHz and displacement resolution of 10 pm are supported with our system.

Frequency selective fngerprint sensor: the Terahertz unity platform for broadband chiral enantiomers multiplexed signals and narrowband molecular AIT enhancement
Jiaming Lv, Shengyuan Shen, Lin Chen, Yiming Zhu, Songlin Zhuang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00108-1
摘要:

Chiral enantiomers have different pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characteristics. It is important to strictly detect chiral component for avoiding being harmful to the human body due to side effects. Terahertz (THz) trace fingerprint detection is essential because the molecular vibrations of various biological substances such as chiral enantiomers are located in THz range. Recent reported enhanced trace fingerprint technologies have some drawbacks. For instance, multiplexing technology suffered from narrow operation range and limitation by frequency resolution of commercial THz time domain spectroscopy; Absorption induced transparency (AIT) identification for narrowband molecular oscillations suffered from random resonance frequency drift due to fabrication error. In this paper, we proposed frequency-selective fingerprint sensor (FSFS), which can experimentally achieve enhanced trace fingerprint detection by both broadband multiplexing technology and robust AIT identification. Such FSFS is based on polarization independent reconfiguration metasurfaces array. Broadband absorption lines of trace-amount chiral carnitine were boosted with absorption enhancement factors of about 7.3 times based on frequency-selective multiplexing at 0.95–2.0 THz. Enhanced trace narrowband α-lactose fingerprint sensing can be observed at several array structures with absorption enhancement factors of about 7 times based on AIT, exhibiting good robustness. The flexibility and versatility of proposed FSFS has potential applications for boosting trace chiral enantiomer detection as well as diversity of molecular fingerprints identification by both multiplexing and AIT.

Chiral enantiomers have different pharmacological and pharmacokinetic characteristics. It is important to strictly detect chiral component for avoiding being harmful to the human body due to side effects. Terahertz (THz) trace fingerprint detection is essential because the molecular vibrations of various biological substances such as chiral enantiomers are located in THz range. Recent reported enhanced trace fingerprint technologies have some drawbacks. For instance, multiplexing technology suffered from narrow operation range and limitation by frequency resolution of commercial THz time domain spectroscopy; Absorption induced transparency (AIT) identification for narrowband molecular oscillations suffered from random resonance frequency drift due to fabrication error. In this paper, we proposed frequency-selective fingerprint sensor (FSFS), which can experimentally achieve enhanced trace fingerprint detection by both broadband multiplexing technology and robust AIT identification. Such FSFS is based on polarization independent reconfiguration metasurfaces array. Broadband absorption lines of trace-amount chiral carnitine were boosted with absorption enhancement factors of about 7.3 times based on frequency-selective multiplexing at 0.95–2.0 THz. Enhanced trace narrowband α-lactose fingerprint sensing can be observed at several array structures with absorption enhancement factors of about 7 times based on AIT, exhibiting good robustness. The flexibility and versatility of proposed FSFS has potential applications for boosting trace chiral enantiomer detection as well as diversity of molecular fingerprints identification by both multiplexing and AIT.

An integrated single-shot spectrometer with large bandwidth-resolution ratio and wide operation temperature range
Ang Li, Chang Wang, Feixia Bao, Wenji Fang, Yuxin Liang, Rui Cheng, Shilong Pan
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00109-0
摘要:

There has been a rapidly growing demand for low-cost, integrated single-shot spectrometers to be embedded in portable intelligent devices. Even though significant progress has been made in this area, two major problems are still remaining, namely the high temperature sensitivity and poor bandwidth-resolution ratio (BRR) that can’t meet the requirement of most applications. In this work, we present an integrated single-shot spectrometer relying on a silicon photonic circuit that has a footprint less than 3mm2, but could achieve broad operation bandwidth about 100 nm and high resolution up to 0.1 nm (with a BRR ~ 1000). Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrate an integrated spectrometer that could operate within a wide temperature range (between 10 and 70 degrees Celsius) without additional power consumption for temperature management.

There has been a rapidly growing demand for low-cost, integrated single-shot spectrometers to be embedded in portable intelligent devices. Even though significant progress has been made in this area, two major problems are still remaining, namely the high temperature sensitivity and poor bandwidth-resolution ratio (BRR) that can’t meet the requirement of most applications. In this work, we present an integrated single-shot spectrometer relying on a silicon photonic circuit that has a footprint less than 3mm2, but could achieve broad operation bandwidth about 100 nm and high resolution up to 0.1 nm (with a BRR ~ 1000). Moreover, for the first time, we demonstrate an integrated spectrometer that could operate within a wide temperature range (between 10 and 70 degrees Celsius) without additional power consumption for temperature management.

Confocal nonlinear optical imaging on hexagonal boron nitride nanosheets
Gwanjin Lee, Konkada Manattayil Jyothsna, Jonghoo Park, JaeDong Lee, Varun Raghunathan, Hyunmin Kim
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00103-6
摘要:

Optical microscopy with optimal axial resolution is critical for precise visualization of two-dimensional flat-top structures. Here, we present sub-diffraction-limited ultrafast imaging of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanosheets using a confocal focus-engineered coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (cFE-CARS) microscopic system. By incorporating a pinhole with a diameter of approximately 30 μm, we effectively minimized the intensity of side lobes induced by circular partial pi-phase shift in the wavefront (diameter, d0) of the probe beam, as well as nonresonant background CARS intensities. Using axial-resolution-improved cFE-CARS (acFE-CARS), the achieved axial resolution is 350 nm, exhibiting a 4.3-folded increase in the signal-to-noise ratio compared to the previous case with 0.58 d0 phase mask. This improvement can be accomplished by using a phase mask of 0.24 d0. Additionally, we employed nondegenerate phase matching with three temporally separable incident beams, which facilitated cross-sectional visualization of highly-sample-specific and vibration-sensitive signals in a pump-probe fashion with subpicosecond time resolution. Our observations reveal time-dependent CARS dephasing in hBN nanosheets, induced by Raman-free induction decay (0.66 ps) in the 1373 cm−1 mode.

Optical microscopy with optimal axial resolution is critical for precise visualization of two-dimensional flat-top structures. Here, we present sub-diffraction-limited ultrafast imaging of hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) nanosheets using a confocal focus-engineered coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (cFE-CARS) microscopic system. By incorporating a pinhole with a diameter of approximately 30 μm, we effectively minimized the intensity of side lobes induced by circular partial pi-phase shift in the wavefront (diameter, d0) of the probe beam, as well as nonresonant background CARS intensities. Using axial-resolution-improved cFE-CARS (acFE-CARS), the achieved axial resolution is 350 nm, exhibiting a 4.3-folded increase in the signal-to-noise ratio compared to the previous case with 0.58 d0 phase mask. This improvement can be accomplished by using a phase mask of 0.24 d0. Additionally, we employed nondegenerate phase matching with three temporally separable incident beams, which facilitated cross-sectional visualization of highly-sample-specific and vibration-sensitive signals in a pump-probe fashion with subpicosecond time resolution. Our observations reveal time-dependent CARS dephasing in hBN nanosheets, induced by Raman-free induction decay (0.66 ps) in the 1373 cm−1 mode.

Harnessing disordered photonics via multi-task learning towards intelligent four-dimensional light feld sensors
Sheng-ke Zhu, Ze-huan Zheng, Weijia Meng, Shan-shan Chang, Yingling Tan, Lu-Jian Chen, Xinyuan Fang, Min Gu, Jin-hui Chen
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00102-7
摘要:

The complete description of a continuous-wave light field includes its four fundamental properties: wavelength, polarization, phase and amplitude. However, the simultaneous measurement of a multi-dimensional light field of such four degrees of freedom is challenging in conventional optical systems requiring a cascade of dispersive and polarization elements. In this work, we demonstrate a disordered-photonics-assisted intelligent four-dimensional light field sensor. This is achieved by discovering that the speckle patterns, generated from light scattering in a disordered medium, are intrinsically sensitive to a high-dimension light field given their high structural degrees of freedom. Further, the multi-task-learning deep neural network is leveraged to process the single-shot light-field-encoded speckle images free from any prior knowledge of the complex disordered structures and realizes the high-accuracy recognition of full-Stokes vector, multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength and power. The proof-of-concept study shows that the states space of four-dimensional light field spanning as high as 1680=4 (multiple-OAM) \(\times\)2 (OAM power spectra) \(\times\)15 (multiple-wavelength) \(\times\)14 (polarizations) can be well recognized with high accuracy in the chip-integrated sensor. Our work provides a novel paradigm for the design of optical sensors for high-dimension light fields, which can be widely applied in optical communication, holography, and imaging.

The complete description of a continuous-wave light field includes its four fundamental properties: wavelength, polarization, phase and amplitude. However, the simultaneous measurement of a multi-dimensional light field of such four degrees of freedom is challenging in conventional optical systems requiring a cascade of dispersive and polarization elements. In this work, we demonstrate a disordered-photonics-assisted intelligent four-dimensional light field sensor. This is achieved by discovering that the speckle patterns, generated from light scattering in a disordered medium, are intrinsically sensitive to a high-dimension light field given their high structural degrees of freedom. Further, the multi-task-learning deep neural network is leveraged to process the single-shot light-field-encoded speckle images free from any prior knowledge of the complex disordered structures and realizes the high-accuracy recognition of full-Stokes vector, multiple orbital angular momentum (OAM), wavelength and power. The proof-of-concept study shows that the states space of four-dimensional light field spanning as high as 1680=4 (multiple-OAM) \(\times\)2 (OAM power spectra) \(\times\)15 (multiple-wavelength) \(\times\)14 (polarizations) can be well recognized with high accuracy in the chip-integrated sensor. Our work provides a novel paradigm for the design of optical sensors for high-dimension light fields, which can be widely applied in optical communication, holography, and imaging.

Thin flm-based colorful radiative cooler using difuse refection for color display
Junren Wen, Xiao Chen, Zeyu Zhu, Yining Zhu, Hao Luo, Yusi Wang, Yujie Liu, Hailan Wang, Wenjia Yuan, Yueguang Zhang, Chenying Yang, Weidong Shen
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00104-5
摘要:

Colorful radiative coolers (CRCs) can be widely applied for energy sustainability especially and meet aesthetic purposes simultaneously. Here, we propose a high-efficiency CRC based on thin film stacks and engineered diffuse reflection unit, which brings out 7.1 °C temperature difference compared with ambient under ~ 700 W·m−2 solar irradiation. Different from analogous schemes, the proposed CRCs produce vivid colors by diffuse reflection and rest of the incident light is specular-reflected without being absorbed. Adopting the structure of TiO2/SiO2 multilayer stack, the nanophotonic radiative cooler shows extra low absorption across the solar radiation waveband. Significant radiative cooling performance can be achieved with the emissivity reaching 95.6% in the atmosphere transparent window (8–13 μm). Moreover, such CRC can be fabricated on flexible substrates, facilitating various applications such as the thermal management of cars or wearables. In conclusion, this work demonstrates a new approach for color display with negligible solar radiation absorption and paves the way for prominent radiative cooling.

Colorful radiative coolers (CRCs) can be widely applied for energy sustainability especially and meet aesthetic purposes simultaneously. Here, we propose a high-efficiency CRC based on thin film stacks and engineered diffuse reflection unit, which brings out 7.1 °C temperature difference compared with ambient under ~ 700 W·m−2 solar irradiation. Different from analogous schemes, the proposed CRCs produce vivid colors by diffuse reflection and rest of the incident light is specular-reflected without being absorbed. Adopting the structure of TiO2/SiO2 multilayer stack, the nanophotonic radiative cooler shows extra low absorption across the solar radiation waveband. Significant radiative cooling performance can be achieved with the emissivity reaching 95.6% in the atmosphere transparent window (8–13 μm). Moreover, such CRC can be fabricated on flexible substrates, facilitating various applications such as the thermal management of cars or wearables. In conclusion, this work demonstrates a new approach for color display with negligible solar radiation absorption and paves the way for prominent radiative cooling.

Ultrafast laser-induced self-organized nanostructuring in transparent dielectrics: fundamentals and applications
Bo Zhang, Zhuo Wang, Dezhi Tan, Jiangrong Qiu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00101-8
摘要:

Inscribing functional micro-nano-structures in transparent dielectrics enables constructing all-inorganic photonic devices with excellent integration, robustness, and durability, but remains a great challenge for conventional fabrication techniques. Recently, ultrafast laser-induced self-organization engineering has emerged as a promising rapid prototyping platform that opens up facile and universal approaches for constructing various advanced nanophotonic elements and attracted tremendous attention all over the world. This paper summarizes the history and important milestones in the development of ultrafast laser-induced self-organized nanostructuring (ULSN) in transparent dielectrics and reviews recent research progresses by introducing newly reported physical phenomena, theoretical mechanisms/models, regulation techniques, and engineering applications, where representative works related to next-generation light manipulation, data storage, optical detecting are discussed in detail. This paper also presents an outlook on the challenges and future trends of ULSN, and important issues merit further exploration.

Inscribing functional micro-nano-structures in transparent dielectrics enables constructing all-inorganic photonic devices with excellent integration, robustness, and durability, but remains a great challenge for conventional fabrication techniques. Recently, ultrafast laser-induced self-organization engineering has emerged as a promising rapid prototyping platform that opens up facile and universal approaches for constructing various advanced nanophotonic elements and attracted tremendous attention all over the world. This paper summarizes the history and important milestones in the development of ultrafast laser-induced self-organized nanostructuring (ULSN) in transparent dielectrics and reviews recent research progresses by introducing newly reported physical phenomena, theoretical mechanisms/models, regulation techniques, and engineering applications, where representative works related to next-generation light manipulation, data storage, optical detecting are discussed in detail. This paper also presents an outlook on the challenges and future trends of ULSN, and important issues merit further exploration.

Green lithium: photoelectrochemical extraction
Zhongxiao Li, Zhen Li, Hao Huang, Yunduo Yao, Bilawal Khan, Ye Zhu, Kuo-Wei Huang, Zhiping Lai, Jr-Hau He
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00100-9
摘要:

Lithium (Li) is an essential element in modern energy production and storage devices. Technology to extract Li from seawater, which contains ~ 230 billion tons of Li, offers a solution to the widespread concern regarding quantitative and geographical limitations of future Li supplies. To obtain green Li from seawater, we propose an unassisted photoelectrochemical (PEC) Li extraction system based on an III-V-based triple-junction (3J) photoelectrode and a Li-ion selective membrane with only sunlight as an input. A light-harvesting/catalysis decoupling scheme yielded a 3J photoelectrode with excellent light-harvesting and catalysis reaction capabilities and superb stability over the 840 h of the extraction process. It allows the system to successfully enrich seawater Li by 4,350 times (i.e., from 0.18 ppm to 783.56 ppm) after three extraction stages. The overall reaction of the unassisted PEC green Li extraction system achieved 2.08 mg kJ−1 of solar-to-Li efficiency and 3.65% of solar-to-hydrogen efficiency.Photoelectrochemical (PEC) lithium extraction device is designed to explore lithium from seawater for the first time. The PEC cell with a triple-junction (InGaP/GaAs/Ge) photoelectrode and light-harvesting/catalysis decoupling scheme is constructed, offering a suitable operating potential and superb stability to the membrane-based extraction process in the seawater. The device can successfully enrich lithium by 4,350 times (from 0.18 to 783.56 ppm).

Lithium (Li) is an essential element in modern energy production and storage devices. Technology to extract Li from seawater, which contains ~ 230 billion tons of Li, offers a solution to the widespread concern regarding quantitative and geographical limitations of future Li supplies. To obtain green Li from seawater, we propose an unassisted photoelectrochemical (PEC) Li extraction system based on an III-V-based triple-junction (3J) photoelectrode and a Li-ion selective membrane with only sunlight as an input. A light-harvesting/catalysis decoupling scheme yielded a 3J photoelectrode with excellent light-harvesting and catalysis reaction capabilities and superb stability over the 840 h of the extraction process. It allows the system to successfully enrich seawater Li by 4,350 times (i.e., from 0.18 ppm to 783.56 ppm) after three extraction stages. The overall reaction of the unassisted PEC green Li extraction system achieved 2.08 mg kJ−1 of solar-to-Li efficiency and 3.65% of solar-to-hydrogen efficiency.Photoelectrochemical (PEC) lithium extraction device is designed to explore lithium from seawater for the first time. The PEC cell with a triple-junction (InGaP/GaAs/Ge) photoelectrode and light-harvesting/catalysis decoupling scheme is constructed, offering a suitable operating potential and superb stability to the membrane-based extraction process in the seawater. The device can successfully enrich lithium by 4,350 times (from 0.18 to 783.56 ppm).

Recent application of Raman spectroscopy in tumor diagnosis: from conventional methods to artifcial intelligence fusion
Yafeng Qi, Yuhong Liu, Jianbin Luo
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00098-0
摘要:

Raman spectroscopy, as a label-free optical technology, has widely applied in tumor diagnosis. Relying on the different Raman technologies, conventional diagnostic methods can be used for the diagnosis of benign, malignant and subtypes of tumors. In the past 3 years, in addition to traditional diagnostic methods, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in various technologies based on Raman technologies has been developing at an incredible speed. Based on this, three technical methods from single spot acquisition (conventional Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy) to Raman imaging are respectively introduced and analyzed the diagnosis process of these technical methods. Meanwhile, the emerging AI applications of tumor diagnosis within these methods are highlighted and presented. Finally, the challenges and limitations of existing diagnostic methods, and the prospects of AI-enabled diagnostic methods are presented.

Raman spectroscopy, as a label-free optical technology, has widely applied in tumor diagnosis. Relying on the different Raman technologies, conventional diagnostic methods can be used for the diagnosis of benign, malignant and subtypes of tumors. In the past 3 years, in addition to traditional diagnostic methods, the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in various technologies based on Raman technologies has been developing at an incredible speed. Based on this, three technical methods from single spot acquisition (conventional Raman spectroscopy, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy) to Raman imaging are respectively introduced and analyzed the diagnosis process of these technical methods. Meanwhile, the emerging AI applications of tumor diagnosis within these methods are highlighted and presented. Finally, the challenges and limitations of existing diagnostic methods, and the prospects of AI-enabled diagnostic methods are presented.

Automatic and continuous blood pressure monitoring via an optical-fber-sensor-assisted smartwatch
Liangye Li, Shunfeng Sheng, Yunfei Liu, Jianpei Wen, Changying Song, Zhipeng Chen, Wangyang Xu, Zhi Zhang, Wei Fan, Chen Chen, Qizhen Sun, Perry-Ping Shum
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00099-z
摘要:

Automatic and continuous blood pressure monitoring is important for preventing cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The evaluation of medication effects and the diagnosis of clinical hypertension can both benefit from continuous monitoring. The current generation of wearable blood pressure monitors frequently encounters limitations with inadequate portability, electrical safety, limited accuracy, and precise position alignment. Here, we present an optical fiber sensor-assisted smartwatch for precise continuous blood pressure monitoring. A fiber adapter and a liquid capsule were used in the building of the blood pressure smartwatch based on an optical fiber sensor. The fiber adapter was used to detect the pulse wave signals, and the liquid capsule was used to expand the sensing area as well as the conformability to the body. The sensor holds a sensitivity of -213µw/kPa, a response time of 5 ms, and high reproducibility with 70,000 cycles. With the assistance of pulse wave signal feature extraction and a machine learning algorithm, the smartwatch can continuously and precisely monitor blood pressure. A wearable smartwatch featuring a signal processing chip, a Bluetooth transmission module, and a specially designed cellphone APP was also created for active health management. The performance in comparison with commercial sphygmomanometer reference measurements shows that the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure errors are -0.35 ± 4.68 mmHg and -2.54 ± 4.07 mmHg, respectively. These values are within the acceptable ranges for Grade A according to the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). The smartwatch assisted with an optical fiber is expected to offer a practical paradigm in digital health.

Automatic and continuous blood pressure monitoring is important for preventing cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. The evaluation of medication effects and the diagnosis of clinical hypertension can both benefit from continuous monitoring. The current generation of wearable blood pressure monitors frequently encounters limitations with inadequate portability, electrical safety, limited accuracy, and precise position alignment. Here, we present an optical fiber sensor-assisted smartwatch for precise continuous blood pressure monitoring. A fiber adapter and a liquid capsule were used in the building of the blood pressure smartwatch based on an optical fiber sensor. The fiber adapter was used to detect the pulse wave signals, and the liquid capsule was used to expand the sensing area as well as the conformability to the body. The sensor holds a sensitivity of -213µw/kPa, a response time of 5 ms, and high reproducibility with 70,000 cycles. With the assistance of pulse wave signal feature extraction and a machine learning algorithm, the smartwatch can continuously and precisely monitor blood pressure. A wearable smartwatch featuring a signal processing chip, a Bluetooth transmission module, and a specially designed cellphone APP was also created for active health management. The performance in comparison with commercial sphygmomanometer reference measurements shows that the systolic pressure and diastolic pressure errors are -0.35 ± 4.68 mmHg and -2.54 ± 4.07 mmHg, respectively. These values are within the acceptable ranges for Grade A according to the British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI). The smartwatch assisted with an optical fiber is expected to offer a practical paradigm in digital health.

Naked-eye observation of water-forming reaction on palladium etalon: transduction of gas-matter reaction into light-matter interaction
Jongsu Lee, Eui-Sang Yu, Taehyun Kim, In Soo Kim, Seok Chung, Seung Jae Kwak, Won Bo Lee, Yusin Pak, Yong-Sang Ryu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00097-1
摘要:

Palladium is the most prominent material in both scientific and industrial research on gas storage, purification, detection, and catalysis due to its unique properties as a catalyst and hydrogen absorber. Advancing the dynamic optical phenomena of palladium reacting with hydrogen, transduction of the gas-matter reaction into light-matter interaction is attempted to visualize the dynamic surface chemistry and reaction behaviors. The simple geometry of the metal-dielectric-metal structure, Fabry–Perot etalon, is employed for a colorimetric reactor, to display the catalytic reaction of the exposed gas via water-film/bubble formation at the dielectric/palladium interface. The adsorption/desorption behavior and catalytic reaction of hydrogen and oxygen on the palladium surface display highly repeatable and dramatic color changes based on two distinct water formation trends: the foggy effect by water bubbles and the whiteout effect by water film formation. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the robustness of the proposed Fabry–Perot etalon as an excellent platform for monitoring the opto-physical phenomena driven by heterogeneous catalysis.

Palladium is the most prominent material in both scientific and industrial research on gas storage, purification, detection, and catalysis due to its unique properties as a catalyst and hydrogen absorber. Advancing the dynamic optical phenomena of palladium reacting with hydrogen, transduction of the gas-matter reaction into light-matter interaction is attempted to visualize the dynamic surface chemistry and reaction behaviors. The simple geometry of the metal-dielectric-metal structure, Fabry–Perot etalon, is employed for a colorimetric reactor, to display the catalytic reaction of the exposed gas via water-film/bubble formation at the dielectric/palladium interface. The adsorption/desorption behavior and catalytic reaction of hydrogen and oxygen on the palladium surface display highly repeatable and dramatic color changes based on two distinct water formation trends: the foggy effect by water bubbles and the whiteout effect by water film formation. Simulations and experiments demonstrate the robustness of the proposed Fabry–Perot etalon as an excellent platform for monitoring the opto-physical phenomena driven by heterogeneous catalysis.

Realization of high aspect ratio metalenses by facile nanoimprint lithography using water-soluble stamps
Hojung Choi, Joohoon Kim, Wonjoong Kim, Junhwa Seong, Chanwoong Park, Minseok Choi, Nakhyun Kim, Jisung Ha, Cheng-Wei Qiu, Junsuk Rho, Heon Lee
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00096-2
摘要:

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has attracted attention recently as a promising fabrication method for dielectric metalenses owing to its low cost and high throughput, however, high aspect ratio (HAR) nanostructures are required to manipulate the full 2π phase of light. Conventional NIL using a hard-polydimethylsiloxane (h-PDMS) mold inevitably incurs shear stress on the nanostructures which is inversely proportional to the surface area parallel to the direction of detachment. Therefore, HAR structures are subjected to larger shear stresses, causing structural failure. Herein, we propose a novel wet etching NIL method with no detachment process to fabricate flawless HAR metalenses. The water-soluble replica mold is fabricated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) which is simpler than an h-PDMS mold, and the flexibility of the PVA mold is suitable for direct printing as its high tensile modulus allows high-resolution patterning of HAR metalenses. The diffraction-limited focusing of the printed metalenses demonstrates that it operates as an ideal lens in the visible regime. This method can potentially be used for manufacturing various nanophotonic devices that require HAR nanostructures at low cost and high throughput, facilitating commercialization.

Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has attracted attention recently as a promising fabrication method for dielectric metalenses owing to its low cost and high throughput, however, high aspect ratio (HAR) nanostructures are required to manipulate the full 2π phase of light. Conventional NIL using a hard-polydimethylsiloxane (h-PDMS) mold inevitably incurs shear stress on the nanostructures which is inversely proportional to the surface area parallel to the direction of detachment. Therefore, HAR structures are subjected to larger shear stresses, causing structural failure. Herein, we propose a novel wet etching NIL method with no detachment process to fabricate flawless HAR metalenses. The water-soluble replica mold is fabricated with polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) which is simpler than an h-PDMS mold, and the flexibility of the PVA mold is suitable for direct printing as its high tensile modulus allows high-resolution patterning of HAR metalenses. The diffraction-limited focusing of the printed metalenses demonstrates that it operates as an ideal lens in the visible regime. This method can potentially be used for manufacturing various nanophotonic devices that require HAR nanostructures at low cost and high throughput, facilitating commercialization.

Spectrum-optimized direct image reconstruction of super-resolution structured illumination microscopy
Gang Wen, Simin Li, Yong Liang, Linbo Wang, Jie Zhang, Xiaohu Chen, Xin Jin, Chong Chen, Yuguo Tang, Hui Li
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00092-6
摘要:

Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) has become a widely used nanoscopy technique for rapid, long-term, and multi-color imaging of live cells. Precise but troublesome determination of the illumination pattern parameters is a prerequisite for Wiener-deconvolution-based SR-SIM image reconstruction. Here, we present a direct reconstruction SIM algorithm (direct-SIM) with an initial spatial-domain reconstruction followed by frequency-domain spectrum optimization. Without any prior knowledge of illumination patterns and bypassing the artifact-sensitive Wiener deconvolution procedures, resolution-doubled SR images could be reconstructed by direct-SIM free of common artifacts, even for the raw images with large pattern variance in the field of view (FOV). Direct-SIM can be applied to previously difficult scenarios such as very sparse samples, periodic samples, very small FOV imaging, and stitched large FOV imaging.

Super-resolution structured illumination microscopy (SR-SIM) has become a widely used nanoscopy technique for rapid, long-term, and multi-color imaging of live cells. Precise but troublesome determination of the illumination pattern parameters is a prerequisite for Wiener-deconvolution-based SR-SIM image reconstruction. Here, we present a direct reconstruction SIM algorithm (direct-SIM) with an initial spatial-domain reconstruction followed by frequency-domain spectrum optimization. Without any prior knowledge of illumination patterns and bypassing the artifact-sensitive Wiener deconvolution procedures, resolution-doubled SR images could be reconstructed by direct-SIM free of common artifacts, even for the raw images with large pattern variance in the field of view (FOV). Direct-SIM can be applied to previously difficult scenarios such as very sparse samples, periodic samples, very small FOV imaging, and stitched large FOV imaging.

Deep learning enables parallel camera with enhanced- resolution and computational zoom imaging
Shu-Bin Liu, Bing-Kun Xie, Rong-Ying Yuan, Meng-Xuan Zhang, Jian-Cheng Xu, Lei Li, Qiong-Hua Wang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00095-3
摘要:

High performance imaging in parallel cameras is a worldwide challenge in computational optics studies. However, the existing solutions are suffering from a fundamental contradiction between the field of view (FOV), resolution and bandwidth, in which system speed and FOV decrease as system scale increases. Inspired by the compound eyes of mantis shrimp and zoom cameras, here we break these bottlenecks by proposing a deep learning-based parallel (DLBP) camera, with an 8-μrad instantaneous FOV and 4 × computational zoom at 30 frames per second. Using the DLBP camera, the snapshot of 30-MPs images is captured at 30 fps, leading to orders-of-magnitude reductions in system complexity and costs. Instead of directly capturing photography with large scale, our interactive-zoom platform operates to enhance resolution using deep learning. The proposed end-to-end model mainly consists of multiple convolution layers, attention layers and deconvolution layer, which preserves more detailed information that the image reconstructs in real time compared with the famous super-resolution methods, and it can be applied to any similar system without any modification. Benefiting from computational zoom without any additional drive and optical component, the DLBP camera provides unprecedented-competitive advantages in improving zoom response time (~ 100 ×) over the comparison systems. Herein, with the experimental system described in this work, the DLBP camera provides a novel strategy to solve the inherent contradiction among FOV, resolution and bandwidth.

High performance imaging in parallel cameras is a worldwide challenge in computational optics studies. However, the existing solutions are suffering from a fundamental contradiction between the field of view (FOV), resolution and bandwidth, in which system speed and FOV decrease as system scale increases. Inspired by the compound eyes of mantis shrimp and zoom cameras, here we break these bottlenecks by proposing a deep learning-based parallel (DLBP) camera, with an 8-μrad instantaneous FOV and 4 × computational zoom at 30 frames per second. Using the DLBP camera, the snapshot of 30-MPs images is captured at 30 fps, leading to orders-of-magnitude reductions in system complexity and costs. Instead of directly capturing photography with large scale, our interactive-zoom platform operates to enhance resolution using deep learning. The proposed end-to-end model mainly consists of multiple convolution layers, attention layers and deconvolution layer, which preserves more detailed information that the image reconstructs in real time compared with the famous super-resolution methods, and it can be applied to any similar system without any modification. Benefiting from computational zoom without any additional drive and optical component, the DLBP camera provides unprecedented-competitive advantages in improving zoom response time (~ 100 ×) over the comparison systems. Herein, with the experimental system described in this work, the DLBP camera provides a novel strategy to solve the inherent contradiction among FOV, resolution and bandwidth.

Conceptual design of the optical system of the 6.5m wide field multiplexed survey telescope with excellent image quality
Yifan Zhang, Haijiao Jiang, Stephen Shectman, Dehua Yang, Zheng Cai, Yong Shi, Song Huang, Lu Lu, Yamin Zheng, Shaonan Kang, Shude Mao, Lei Huang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00094-4
摘要:
MXene sensors based on optical and electrical sensing signals: from biological, chemical, and physical sensing to emerging intelligent and bionic devices
Leiming Wu, Xixi Yuan, Yuxuan Tang, S. Wageh, Omar A. Al-Hartomy, Abdullah G. Al-Sehemi, Jun Yang, Yuanjiang Xiang, Han Zhang, Yuwen Qin
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00091-7
摘要:
Handling mode and polarization in fiber by fs-laser inscribed (de)multiplexer and silicon switch array
Kang Li, Min Yang, Chengkun Cai, Xiaoping Cao, Guofeng Yan, Guangze Wu, Yuanjian Wan, Jian Wang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00093-5
摘要:
Electric field enhancement of coupled plasmonic nanostructures for optical amplification
Jun Hyun Kim, Ja Yeon Lee, Eung Soo Kim, Myung Yung Jeong
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00086-4
摘要:
Plasmonic effects that enhance electric fields and amplify optical signals are crucial for improving the resolution of optical imaging systems. In this paper, a metal-based plasmonic nanostructure (MPN) is designed to increase the resolution of an optical imaging system by amplifying a specific signal while producing a plasmonic effect via a dipole nanoantenna (DN) and grating nanostructure (GN), which couple the electric field to be focused at the center of the unit cell. We confirmed that the MPN enhances electric fields 15 times more than the DN and GN, enabling the acquisition of finely resolved optical signals. The experiments confirmed that compared with the initial laser intensity, the MPN, which was fabricated by nanoimprint lithography, enhanced the optical signal of the laser by 2.24 times. Moreover, when the MPN was applied in two optical imaging systems, an indistinguishable signal that was similar to noise in original was distinguished by amplifying the optical signal as 106 times in functional near-infrared spectroscopy(fNIRS), and a specific wavelength was enhanced in fluorescence image. Thus, the incorporation of this nanostructure increased the utility of the collected data and could enhance optical signals in optics, bioimaging, and biology applications. Plasmonic effects that enhance electric fields and amplify optical signals are crucial for improving the resolution of optical imaging systems. In this paper, a metal-based plasmonic nanostructure (MPN) is designed to increase the resolution of an optical imaging system by amplifying a specific signal while producing a plasmonic effect via a dipole nanoantenna (DN) and grating nanostructure (GN), which couple the electric field to be focused at the center of the unit cell. We confirmed that the MPN enhances electric fields 15 times more than the DN and GN, enabling the acquisition of finely resolved optical signals. The experiments confirmed that compared with the initial laser intensity, the MPN, which was fabricated by nanoimprint lithography, enhanced the optical signal of the laser by 2.24 times. Moreover, when the MPN was applied in two optical imaging systems, an indistinguishable signal that was similar to noise in original was distinguished by amplifying the optical signal as 106 times in functional near-infrared spectroscopy(fNIRS), and a specific wavelength was enhanced in fluorescence image. Thus, the incorporation of this nanostructure increased the utility of the collected data and could enhance optical signals in optics, bioimaging, and biology applications.
All-fiber device for single-photon detection
Yue Dai, Kunpeng Jia, Guanghao Zhu, Hui Li, Yue Fei, Yuqing Guo, Hang Yuan, Hao Wang, Xiaoqing Jia, Qingyuan Zhao, Lin Kang, Jian Chen, Shi-ning Zhu, Peiheng Wu, Zhenda Xie, Labao Zhang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00085-5
摘要:
Fiber components form the standard not only in modern telecommunication but also for future quantum information technology. For high-performance single-photon detection, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SPDs) are typically fabricated on a silicon chip and fiber-coupled for easy handling and usage. The fiber-to-chip interface hinders the SPD from being an all-fiber device for full utilization of its excellent performance. Here, we report a scheme of SPD that is directly fabricated on the fiber tip. A bury-and-planar fabrication technique is developed to improve the roughness of the substrate for all-fiber detectors’ performance for single-photon detection with amorphous molybdenum silicide (MoSi) nanowires. The low material selectivity and universal planar process enable fabrication and packaging on a large scale. Such a detector responds to a broad wavelength range from 405 nm to 1550 nm at a dark count rate of 100 cps. The relaxation time of the response pulse is ~ 15 ns, which is comparable to that of on-chip SPDs. Therefore, this device is free from fiber-to-chip coupling and easy packaging for all-fiber quantum information systems. Fiber components form the standard not only in modern telecommunication but also for future quantum information technology. For high-performance single-photon detection, superconducting nanowire single-photon detectors (SPDs) are typically fabricated on a silicon chip and fiber-coupled for easy handling and usage. The fiber-to-chip interface hinders the SPD from being an all-fiber device for full utilization of its excellent performance. Here, we report a scheme of SPD that is directly fabricated on the fiber tip. A bury-and-planar fabrication technique is developed to improve the roughness of the substrate for all-fiber detectors’ performance for single-photon detection with amorphous molybdenum silicide (MoSi) nanowires. The low material selectivity and universal planar process enable fabrication and packaging on a large scale. Such a detector responds to a broad wavelength range from 405 nm to 1550 nm at a dark count rate of 100 cps. The relaxation time of the response pulse is ~ 15 ns, which is comparable to that of on-chip SPDs. Therefore, this device is free from fiber-to-chip coupling and easy packaging for all-fiber quantum information systems.
Visualizing the ultra-structure of microorganisms using table-top extreme ultraviolet imaging
Chang Liu, Wilhelm Eschen, Lars Loetgering, Daniel S. Penagos Molina, Robert Klas, Alexander Iliou, Michael Steinert, Sebastian Herkersdorf, Alexander Kirsche, Thomas Pertsch, Falk Hillmann, Jens Limpert, Jan Rothhardt
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00084-6
摘要:
Table-top extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscopy offers unique opportunities for label-free investigation of biological samples. Here, we demonstrate ptychographic EUV imaging of two dried, unstained model specimens: germlings of a fungus (Aspergillus nidulans), and bacteria (Escherichia coli) cells at 13.5 nm wavelength. We find that the EUV spectral region, which to date has not received much attention for biological imaging, offers sufficient penetration depths for the identification of intracellular features. By implementing a position-correlated ptychography approach, we demonstrate a millimeter-squared field of view enabled by infrared illumination combined with sub-60 nm spatial resolution achieved with EUV illumination on selected regions of interest. The strong element contrast at 13.5 nm wavelength enables the identification of the nanoscale material composition inside the specimens. Our work will advance and facilitate EUV imaging applications and enable further possibilities in life science. Table-top extreme ultraviolet (EUV) microscopy offers unique opportunities for label-free investigation of biological samples. Here, we demonstrate ptychographic EUV imaging of two dried, unstained model specimens: germlings of a fungus (Aspergillus nidulans), and bacteria (Escherichia coli) cells at 13.5 nm wavelength. We find that the EUV spectral region, which to date has not received much attention for biological imaging, offers sufficient penetration depths for the identification of intracellular features. By implementing a position-correlated ptychography approach, we demonstrate a millimeter-squared field of view enabled by infrared illumination combined with sub-60 nm spatial resolution achieved with EUV illumination on selected regions of interest. The strong element contrast at 13.5 nm wavelength enables the identification of the nanoscale material composition inside the specimens. Our work will advance and facilitate EUV imaging applications and enable further possibilities in life science.
Correction: Enhancing image resolution of confocal fluorescence microscopy with deep learning
Boyi Huang, Jia Li, Bowen Yao, Zhigang Yang, Edmund Y. Lam, Jia Zhang, Wei Yan, Junle Qu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00083-7
摘要:
CsPbBr3/graphene nanowall artificial optoelectronic synapses for controllable perceptual learning
Runze Li, Yibo Dong, Fengsong Qian, Yiyang Xie, Xi Chen, Qiming Zhang, Zengji Yue, Min Gu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00082-8
摘要:
The rapid development of neuromorphic computing has stimulated extensive research interest in artificial synapses. Optoelectronic artificial synapses using laser beams as stimulus signals have the advantages of broadband, fast response, and low crosstalk. However, the optoelectronic synapses usually exhibit short memory duration due to the low lifetime of the photo-generated carriers. It greatly limits the mimicking of human perceptual learning, which is a common phenomenon in sensory interactions with the environment and practices of specific sensory tasks. Herein, a heterostructure optoelectronic synapse based on graphene nanowalls and CsPbBr3 quantum dots was fabricated. The graphene/CsPbBr3 heterojunction and the natural middle energy band in graphene nanowalls extend the carrier lifetime. Therefore, a long half-life period of photocurrent decay - 35.59 s has been achieved. Moreover, the long-term optoelectronic response can be controlled by the adjustment of numbers, powers, wavelengths, and frequencies of the laser pulses. Next, an artificial neural network consisting of a 28 × 28 synaptic array was established. It can be used to mimic a typical characteristic of human perceptual learning that the ability of sensory systems is enhanced through a learning experience. The learning behavior of image recognition can be tuned based on the photocurrent response control. The accuracy of image recognition keeps above 80% even under a low-frequency learning process. We also verify that less time is required to regain the lost sensory ability that has been previously learned. This approach paves the way toward high-performance intelligent devices with controllable learning of visual perception. The rapid development of neuromorphic computing has stimulated extensive research interest in artificial synapses. Optoelectronic artificial synapses using laser beams as stimulus signals have the advantages of broadband, fast response, and low crosstalk. However, the optoelectronic synapses usually exhibit short memory duration due to the low lifetime of the photo-generated carriers. It greatly limits the mimicking of human perceptual learning, which is a common phenomenon in sensory interactions with the environment and practices of specific sensory tasks. Herein, a heterostructure optoelectronic synapse based on graphene nanowalls and CsPbBr3 quantum dots was fabricated. The graphene/CsPbBr3 heterojunction and the natural middle energy band in graphene nanowalls extend the carrier lifetime. Therefore, a long half-life period of photocurrent decay - 35.59 s has been achieved. Moreover, the long-term optoelectronic response can be controlled by the adjustment of numbers, powers, wavelengths, and frequencies of the laser pulses. Next, an artificial neural network consisting of a 28 × 28 synaptic array was established. It can be used to mimic a typical characteristic of human perceptual learning that the ability of sensory systems is enhanced through a learning experience. The learning behavior of image recognition can be tuned based on the photocurrent response control. The accuracy of image recognition keeps above 80% even under a low-frequency learning process. We also verify that less time is required to regain the lost sensory ability that has been previously learned. This approach paves the way toward high-performance intelligent devices with controllable learning of visual perception.
Correction: Multi-focus light-field microscopy for high-speed large-volume imaging
Yi Zhang, Yuling Wang, Mingrui Wang, Yuduo Guo, Xinyang Li, Yifan Chen, Zhi Lu, Jiamin Wu, Xiangyang Ji, Qionghai Dai
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00081-1
摘要:
Directly and instantly seeing through random diffusers by self-imaging in scattering speckles
Jietao Liu, Wenhong Yang, Guofeng Song, Qiaoqiang Gan
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00080-2
摘要:
Imaging through scattering medium is challenging but important for different applications. Most advances rely on computational image reconstruction from scattering signals. In these conventional investigations, speckles were always treated as scrambled grainy patterns. Directly seeing through scattering diffusers has never been realized. Here, we report a new strategy to see through random diffusers directly using self-imaging of speckles. By analyzing the physics, a direct observation strategy through scattering media is reported with improved image quality. Using this method, we experimentally demonstrated reconstruction-free real-time imaging of static and moving objects with their actual orientation information under single-wavelength and white light illumination. We also proposed a modified speckle autocorrelation imaging (SAI) method inspired by the self-imaging results. Importantly, our strategy requires no pre-calibration or acquisition of point-spread-function, no active control of wavefronts or complicated equipment, nor iterations or carefully adjusted parameters, paving the way towards rapid and high-quality imaging through scattering diffusers. Imaging through scattering medium is challenging but important for different applications. Most advances rely on computational image reconstruction from scattering signals. In these conventional investigations, speckles were always treated as scrambled grainy patterns. Directly seeing through scattering diffusers has never been realized. Here, we report a new strategy to see through random diffusers directly using self-imaging of speckles. By analyzing the physics, a direct observation strategy through scattering media is reported with improved image quality. Using this method, we experimentally demonstrated reconstruction-free real-time imaging of static and moving objects with their actual orientation information under single-wavelength and white light illumination. We also proposed a modified speckle autocorrelation imaging (SAI) method inspired by the self-imaging results. Importantly, our strategy requires no pre-calibration or acquisition of point-spread-function, no active control of wavefronts or complicated equipment, nor iterations or carefully adjusted parameters, paving the way towards rapid and high-quality imaging through scattering diffusers.
Manipulating light transmission and absorption via an achromatic reflectionless metasurface
Xiaoying Zheng, Jing Lin, Zhuo Wang, Haoyang Zhou, Qiong He, Lei Zhou
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00078-w
摘要:
Freely switching light transmission and absorption via an achromatic reflectionless screen is highly desired for many photonic applications (e.g., energy-harvesting, cloaking, etc.), but available meta-devices often exhibit reflections out of their narrow working bands. Here, we rigorously demonstrate that an optical metasurface formed by two resonator arrays coupled vertically can be perfectly reflectionless at all frequencies below the first diffraction mode, when the near-field (NF) and far-field (FF) couplings between two constitutional resonators satisfy certain conditions. Tuning intrinsic loss of the system can further modulate the ratio between light transmission and absorption, yet keeping reflection diminished strictly. Designing/fabricating a series of metasurfaces with different inter-resonator configurations, we experimentally illustrate how varying inter-resonator NF and FF couplings can drive the system to transit between different phase regions in a generic phase diagram. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate that a realistic metasurface satisfying the discovered criteria exhibits the desired achromatic reflectionless property within 160–220 THz (0–225 THz in simulation), yet behaving as a perfect absorber at ~ 203 THz. Our findings pave the road to realize meta-devices exhibiting designable transmission/absorption spectra immune from reflections, which may find many applications in practice. Freely switching light transmission and absorption via an achromatic reflectionless screen is highly desired for many photonic applications (e.g., energy-harvesting, cloaking, etc.), but available meta-devices often exhibit reflections out of their narrow working bands. Here, we rigorously demonstrate that an optical metasurface formed by two resonator arrays coupled vertically can be perfectly reflectionless at all frequencies below the first diffraction mode, when the near-field (NF) and far-field (FF) couplings between two constitutional resonators satisfy certain conditions. Tuning intrinsic loss of the system can further modulate the ratio between light transmission and absorption, yet keeping reflection diminished strictly. Designing/fabricating a series of metasurfaces with different inter-resonator configurations, we experimentally illustrate how varying inter-resonator NF and FF couplings can drive the system to transit between different phase regions in a generic phase diagram. In particular, we experimentally demonstrate that a realistic metasurface satisfying the discovered criteria exhibits the desired achromatic reflectionless property within 160–220 THz (0–225 THz in simulation), yet behaving as a perfect absorber at ~ 203 THz. Our findings pave the road to realize meta-devices exhibiting designable transmission/absorption spectra immune from reflections, which may find many applications in practice.
Enhancing image resolution of confocal fluorescence microscopy with deep learning
Boyi Huang, Jia Li, Bowen Yao, Zhigang Yang, Edmund Y. Lam, Jia Zhang, Wei Yan, Junle Qu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00077-x
摘要:
Super-resolution optical imaging is crucial to the study of cellular processes. Current super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is restricted by the need of special fluorophores or sophisticated optical systems, or long acquisition and computational times. In this work, we present a deep-learning-based super-resolution technique of confocal microscopy. We devise a two-channel attention network (TCAN), which takes advantage of both spatial representations and frequency contents to learn a more precise mapping from low-resolution images to high-resolution ones. This scheme is robust against changes in the pixel size and the imaging setup, enabling the optimal model to generalize to different fluorescence microscopy modalities unseen in the training set. Our algorithm is validated on diverse biological structures and dual-color confocal images of actin-microtubules, improving the resolution from ~ 230 nm to ~ 110 nm. Last but not least, we demonstrate live-cell super-resolution imaging by revealing the detailed structures and dynamic instability of microtubules. Super-resolution optical imaging is crucial to the study of cellular processes. Current super-resolution fluorescence microscopy is restricted by the need of special fluorophores or sophisticated optical systems, or long acquisition and computational times. In this work, we present a deep-learning-based super-resolution technique of confocal microscopy. We devise a two-channel attention network (TCAN), which takes advantage of both spatial representations and frequency contents to learn a more precise mapping from low-resolution images to high-resolution ones. This scheme is robust against changes in the pixel size and the imaging setup, enabling the optimal model to generalize to different fluorescence microscopy modalities unseen in the training set. Our algorithm is validated on diverse biological structures and dual-color confocal images of actin-microtubules, improving the resolution from ~ 230 nm to ~ 110 nm. Last but not least, we demonstrate live-cell super-resolution imaging by revealing the detailed structures and dynamic instability of microtubules.
Multi-focus light-field microscopy for high-speed large-volume imaging
Yi Zhang, Yuling Wang, Mingrui Wang, Yuduo Guo, Xinyang Li, Yifan Chen, Zhi Lu, Jiamin Wu, Xiangyang Ji, Qionghai Dai
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00076-y
摘要:
High-speed visualization of three-dimensional (3D) processes across a large field of view with cellular resolution is essential for understanding living systems. Light-field microscopy (LFM) has emerged as a powerful tool for fast volumetric imaging. However, one inherent limitation of LFM is that the achievable lateral resolution degrades rapidly with the increase of the distance from the focal plane, which hinders the applications in observing thick samples. Here, we propose Spherical-Aberration-assisted scanning LFM (SAsLFM), a hardware-modification-free method that modulates the phase-space point-spread-functions (PSFs) to extend the effective high-resolution range along the z-axis by ~ 3 times. By transferring the foci to different depths, we take full advantage of the redundant light-field data to preserve finer details over an extended depth range and reduce artifacts near the original focal plane. Experiments on a USAF-resolution chart and zebrafish vasculatures were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. We further investigated the capability of SAsLFM in dynamic samples by imaging large-scale calcium transients in the mouse brain, tracking freely-moving jellyfish, and recording the development of Drosophila embryos. In addition, combined with deep-learning approaches, we accelerated the three-dimensional reconstruction of SAsLFM by three orders of magnitude. Our method is compatible with various phase-space imaging techniques without increasing system complexity and can facilitate high-speed large-scale volumetric imaging in thick samples. High-speed visualization of three-dimensional (3D) processes across a large field of view with cellular resolution is essential for understanding living systems. Light-field microscopy (LFM) has emerged as a powerful tool for fast volumetric imaging. However, one inherent limitation of LFM is that the achievable lateral resolution degrades rapidly with the increase of the distance from the focal plane, which hinders the applications in observing thick samples. Here, we propose Spherical-Aberration-assisted scanning LFM (SAsLFM), a hardware-modification-free method that modulates the phase-space point-spread-functions (PSFs) to extend the effective high-resolution range along the z-axis by ~ 3 times. By transferring the foci to different depths, we take full advantage of the redundant light-field data to preserve finer details over an extended depth range and reduce artifacts near the original focal plane. Experiments on a USAF-resolution chart and zebrafish vasculatures were conducted to verify the effectiveness of the method. We further investigated the capability of SAsLFM in dynamic samples by imaging large-scale calcium transients in the mouse brain, tracking freely-moving jellyfish, and recording the development of Drosophila embryos. In addition, combined with deep-learning approaches, we accelerated the three-dimensional reconstruction of SAsLFM by three orders of magnitude. Our method is compatible with various phase-space imaging techniques without increasing system complexity and can facilitate high-speed large-scale volumetric imaging in thick samples.
Ultracompact multifunctional metalens visor for augmented reality displays
Yan Li, Shuyi Chen, Haowen Liang, Xiuying Ren, Lingcong Luo, Yuye Ling, Shuxin Liu, Yikai Su, Shin-Tson Wu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00075-z
摘要:
Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have found widespread applications in education, engineering, healthcare, and entertainment. However, these near-eye displays are often bulky and heavy, and thus are not suitable for long-term wearing. Metalenses, with an ultra-thin formfactor, subwavelength modulation scale, and high modulation flexibility, are promising candidates to replace the conventional optics in AR display systems. In this work, we proposed and fabricated a novel reflective dielectric metalens-visor based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase with see-through capability. It achieves diffraction-limited focusing behavior for the reflected red light, while keeping a good transmission spectrum in the visible region. Hence, this single piece metalens-visor can perform the function of two integrated elements simultaneously: an eyepiece and an optical combiner, which in turn greatly reduces the weight and the size of an AR display. We have implemented a proof-of-concept AR display system employing the metalens-visor, and experimentally demonstrated color AR images with good image quality. This work reveals the great potential of multi-functional metasurface devices which enables optical integration in interdisciplinary applications including wearable displays, biological imaging, and aeronautic optical instruments. Virtual reality (VR) and augmented reality (AR) have found widespread applications in education, engineering, healthcare, and entertainment. However, these near-eye displays are often bulky and heavy, and thus are not suitable for long-term wearing. Metalenses, with an ultra-thin formfactor, subwavelength modulation scale, and high modulation flexibility, are promising candidates to replace the conventional optics in AR display systems. In this work, we proposed and fabricated a novel reflective dielectric metalens-visor based on Pancharatnam-Berry phase with see-through capability. It achieves diffraction-limited focusing behavior for the reflected red light, while keeping a good transmission spectrum in the visible region. Hence, this single piece metalens-visor can perform the function of two integrated elements simultaneously: an eyepiece and an optical combiner, which in turn greatly reduces the weight and the size of an AR display. We have implemented a proof-of-concept AR display system employing the metalens-visor, and experimentally demonstrated color AR images with good image quality. This work reveals the great potential of multi-functional metasurface devices which enables optical integration in interdisciplinary applications including wearable displays, biological imaging, and aeronautic optical instruments.
Planar metasurface-based concentrators for solar energy harvest: from theory to engineering
Cheng Zhang, Yujie Zhan, Yongxue Qiu, Leilei Xu, Jianguo Guan
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00074-0
摘要:
Solar energy is an inexhaustible renewable energy resource, which is a potential solution to global warming and aids sustainable development. The use of solar-thermal collectors to harness solar energy facilitates low-cost heat storage and can improve the stability of power grids based on renewable energy. In solar-thermal collectors, traditional concentrators, such as parabolic troughs and dishes, are typically used but inevitably require high-precise supports and complex tracking sun systems, which increase the cost of solar-thermal power stations and hinder their further applications. In contrast, planar meta-lenses (so-called metasurface-based concentrators) consisting of two-dimensional nanostructured arrays are allowed to engineer the frequency dispersion and angular dispersion of the incident light through delicately arranging the aperture phase distribution, thereby correcting their inherent aberrations. Accordingly, the novel meta-lenses offer tremendous potentials to effectively capture broadband, wide-angle sunlight without the extra tracking system. This review summarizes the research motivation, design principles, building materials, and large-area fabrication methods of meta-lens for solar energy harvesting in terms of focusing efficiency, operation bandwidth, and angular dependence. In addition, the main challenges and future goals are examined. Solar energy is an inexhaustible renewable energy resource, which is a potential solution to global warming and aids sustainable development. The use of solar-thermal collectors to harness solar energy facilitates low-cost heat storage and can improve the stability of power grids based on renewable energy. In solar-thermal collectors, traditional concentrators, such as parabolic troughs and dishes, are typically used but inevitably require high-precise supports and complex tracking sun systems, which increase the cost of solar-thermal power stations and hinder their further applications. In contrast, planar meta-lenses (so-called metasurface-based concentrators) consisting of two-dimensional nanostructured arrays are allowed to engineer the frequency dispersion and angular dispersion of the incident light through delicately arranging the aperture phase distribution, thereby correcting their inherent aberrations. Accordingly, the novel meta-lenses offer tremendous potentials to effectively capture broadband, wide-angle sunlight without the extra tracking system. This review summarizes the research motivation, design principles, building materials, and large-area fabrication methods of meta-lens for solar energy harvesting in terms of focusing efficiency, operation bandwidth, and angular dependence. In addition, the main challenges and future goals are examined.
Correction: Adaptive optical quantitative phase imaging based on annular illumination Fourier ptychographic microscopy
Yefeng Shu, Jiasong Sun, Jiaming Lyu, Yao Fan, Ning Zhou, Ran Ye, Guoan Zheng, Qian Chen, Chao Zuo
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00073-1
摘要:
Single-color peripheral photoinhibition lithography of nanophotonic structures
Minfei He, Zhimin Zhang, Chun Cao, Yiwei Qiu, Xiaoming Shen, Guozun Zhou, Zixin Cai, Xinjie Sun, Xin He, Liang Xu, Xi Liu, Chenliang Ding, Yaoyu Cao, Cuifang Kuang, Xu Liu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00072-2
摘要:
Advances in direct laser writing to attain super-resolution are required to improve fabrication performance and develop potential applications for nanophotonics. In this study, a novel technique using single-color peripheral photoinhibition lithography was developed to improve the resolution of direct laser writing while preventing the chromatic aberration characteristics of conventional multicolor photoinhibition lithography, thus offering a robust tool for fabricating 2D and 3D nanophotonic structures. A minimal feature size of 36 nm and a resolution of 140 nm were achieved with a writing speed that was at least 10 times faster than existing photoinhibition lithography. Super-resolution and fast scanning enable the fabrication of spin-decoupled metasurfaces in the visible range within a printing duration of a few minutes. Finally, a subwavelength photonic crystal with a near-ultraviolet structural color was fabricated to demonstrate the potential of 3D printing. This technique is a flexible and reliable tool for fabricating ultracompact optical devices. Advances in direct laser writing to attain super-resolution are required to improve fabrication performance and develop potential applications for nanophotonics. In this study, a novel technique using single-color peripheral photoinhibition lithography was developed to improve the resolution of direct laser writing while preventing the chromatic aberration characteristics of conventional multicolor photoinhibition lithography, thus offering a robust tool for fabricating 2D and 3D nanophotonic structures. A minimal feature size of 36 nm and a resolution of 140 nm were achieved with a writing speed that was at least 10 times faster than existing photoinhibition lithography. Super-resolution and fast scanning enable the fabrication of spin-decoupled metasurfaces in the visible range within a printing duration of a few minutes. Finally, a subwavelength photonic crystal with a near-ultraviolet structural color was fabricated to demonstrate the potential of 3D printing. This technique is a flexible and reliable tool for fabricating ultracompact optical devices.
Adaptive optical quantitative phase imaging based on annular illumination Fourier ptychographic microscopy
Yefeng Shu, Jiasong Sun, Jiaming Lyu, Yao Fan, Ning Zhou, Ran Ye, Guoan Zheng, Qian Chen, Chao Zuo
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00071-3
摘要:
Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has emerged as a valuable tool for biomedical research thanks to its unique capabilities for quantifying optical thickness variation of living cells and tissues. Among many QPI methods, Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) allows long-term label-free observation and quantitative analysis of large cell populations without compromising spatial and temporal resolution. However, high spatio-temporal resolution imaging over a long-time scale (from hours to days) remains a critical challenge: optically inhomogeneous structure of biological specimens as well as mechanical perturbations and thermal fluctuations of the microscope body all result in time-varying aberration and focus drifts, significantly degrading the imaging performance for long-term study. Moreover, the aberrations are sample- and environment-dependent, and cannot be compensated by a fixed optical design, thus necessitating rapid dynamic correction in the imaging process. Here, we report an adaptive optical QPI method based on annular illumination FPM. In this method, the annular matched illumination configuration (i.e., the illumination numerical aperture (NA) strictly equals to the objective NA), which is the key for recovering low-frequency phase information, is further utilized for the accurate imaging aberration characterization. By using only 6 low-resolution images captured with 6 different illumination angles matching the NA of a 10x, 0.4 NA objective, we recover high-resolution quantitative phase images (synthetic NA of 0.8) and characterize the aberrations in real time, restoring the optimum resolution of the system adaptively. Applying our method to live-cell imaging, we achieve diffraction-limited performance (full-pitch resolution of \begin{document}$ 655\,nm $\end{document} at a wavelength of \begin{document}$ 525\,nm $\end{document}) across a wide field of view (\begin{document}$ 1.77\,mm^2 $\end{document}) over an extended period of time. Quantitative phase imaging (QPI) has emerged as a valuable tool for biomedical research thanks to its unique capabilities for quantifying optical thickness variation of living cells and tissues. Among many QPI methods, Fourier ptychographic microscopy (FPM) allows long-term label-free observation and quantitative analysis of large cell populations without compromising spatial and temporal resolution. However, high spatio-temporal resolution imaging over a long-time scale (from hours to days) remains a critical challenge: optically inhomogeneous structure of biological specimens as well as mechanical perturbations and thermal fluctuations of the microscope body all result in time-varying aberration and focus drifts, significantly degrading the imaging performance for long-term study. Moreover, the aberrations are sample- and environment-dependent, and cannot be compensated by a fixed optical design, thus necessitating rapid dynamic correction in the imaging process. Here, we report an adaptive optical QPI method based on annular illumination FPM. In this method, the annular matched illumination configuration (i.e., the illumination numerical aperture (NA) strictly equals to the objective NA), which is the key for recovering low-frequency phase information, is further utilized for the accurate imaging aberration characterization. By using only 6 low-resolution images captured with 6 different illumination angles matching the NA of a 10x, 0.4 NA objective, we recover high-resolution quantitative phase images (synthetic NA of 0.8) and characterize the aberrations in real time, restoring the optimum resolution of the system adaptively. Applying our method to live-cell imaging, we achieve diffraction-limited performance (full-pitch resolution of $ 655\,nm $ at a wavelength of $ 525\,nm $) across a wide field of view ($ 1.77\,mm^2 $) over an extended period of time.
Ultra-compact nonvolatile phase shifter based on electrically reprogrammable transparent phase change materials
Carlos Ríos, Qingyang Du, Yifei Zhang, Cosmin-Constantin Popescu, Mikhail Y. Shalaginov, Paul Miller, Christopher Roberts, Myungkoo Kang, Kathleen A. Richardson, Tian Gu, Steven A. Vitale, Juejun Hu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00070-4
摘要:
Optical phase shifters constitute the fundamental building blocks that enable programmable photonic integrated circuits (PICs)—the cornerstone of on-chip classical and quantum optical technologies [1, 2]. Thus far, carrier modulation and thermo-optical effect are the chosen phenomena for ultrafast and low-loss phase shifters, respectively; however, the state and information they carry are lost once the power is turned off—they are volatile. The volatility not only compromises energy efficiency due to their demand for constant power supply, but also precludes them from emerging applications such as in-memory computing. To circumvent this limitation, we introduce a phase shifting mechanism that exploits the nonvolatile refractive index modulation upon structural phase transition of Sb2Se3, a bi-state transparent phase change material (PCM). A zero-static power and electrically-driven phase shifter is realized on a CMOS-backend silicon-on-insulator platform, featuring record phase modulation up to 0.09 π/µm and a low insertion loss of 0.3 dB/π, which can be further improved upon streamlined design. Furthermore, we demonstrate phase and extinction ratio trimming of ring resonators and pioneer a one-step partial amorphization scheme to enhance speed and energy efficiency of PCM devices. A diverse cohort of programmable photonic devices is demonstrated based on the ultra-compact PCM phase shifter. Optical phase shifters constitute the fundamental building blocks that enable programmable photonic integrated circuits (PICs)—the cornerstone of on-chip classical and quantum optical technologies [1, 2]. Thus far, carrier modulation and thermo-optical effect are the chosen phenomena for ultrafast and low-loss phase shifters, respectively; however, the state and information they carry are lost once the power is turned off—they are volatile. The volatility not only compromises energy efficiency due to their demand for constant power supply, but also precludes them from emerging applications such as in-memory computing. To circumvent this limitation, we introduce a phase shifting mechanism that exploits the nonvolatile refractive index modulation upon structural phase transition of Sb2Se3, a bi-state transparent phase change material (PCM). A zero-static power and electrically-driven phase shifter is realized on a CMOS-backend silicon-on-insulator platform, featuring record phase modulation up to 0.09 π/µm and a low insertion loss of 0.3 dB/π, which can be further improved upon streamlined design. Furthermore, we demonstrate phase and extinction ratio trimming of ring resonators and pioneer a one-step partial amorphization scheme to enhance speed and energy efficiency of PCM devices. A diverse cohort of programmable photonic devices is demonstrated based on the ultra-compact PCM phase shifter.
Plasmonic anapole metamaterial for refractive index sensing
Jin Yao, Jun-Yu Ou, Vassili Savinov, Mu Ku Chen, Hsin Yu Kuo, Nikolay I. Zheludev, Din Ping Tsai
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00069-x
摘要:
Electromagnetic anapole mode is a nonradiative state of light originating from the deconstructive interference of radiation of the oscillating electric and toroidal dipole moments. The high quality anapole-related resonances can be used in enhancing nonlinear electromagnetic properties of materials and in sensor applications. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate plasmonic anapole metamaterial sensor of environmental refractive index in the optical part of the spectrum. Our results show that the sensor exhibits high sensitivity to the ambient refractive index at the level of 330 nm/RIU and noise floor of 8.7 × 10-5 RIU. This work will pave the way for applications of anapole metamaterials in biosensing and spectroscopy. Electromagnetic anapole mode is a nonradiative state of light originating from the deconstructive interference of radiation of the oscillating electric and toroidal dipole moments. The high quality anapole-related resonances can be used in enhancing nonlinear electromagnetic properties of materials and in sensor applications. In this work, we experimentally demonstrate plasmonic anapole metamaterial sensor of environmental refractive index in the optical part of the spectrum. Our results show that the sensor exhibits high sensitivity to the ambient refractive index at the level of 330 nm/RIU and noise floor of 8.7 × 10-5 RIU. This work will pave the way for applications of anapole metamaterials in biosensing and spectroscopy.
摘要:
Frequency-swept feedback interferometry for noncooperative-target ranging with a stand-off distance of several hundred meters
Yifan Wang, Xin Xu, Zongren Dai, Ziyu Hua, Chenxiao Lin, Yubin Hou, Qian Zhang, Pu Wang, Yidong Tan
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00067-z
摘要:
Frequency-swept interferometry (FSI) is a powerful ranging method with high precision and immunity to ambient light. However, the stand-off distance of the current FSI-based ranging system for noncooperative targets is relatively short because the weak echo power cannot provide the needed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Here, we report a ranging method that combines FSI and the laser feedback technique. Compared with conventional FSI, the interference between the weak echo signal and the local oscillator occurs in the laser cavity, which enhances the signal spontaneously and then provides an improved SNR. In the experiments, the detection limit of the echo power is less than 0.1 fW, with a 1 mW probe beam. Based on the enhancement from the laser feedback technique, the system can detect a noncooperative target that is up to hundreds of meters away in space without extra optical amplifiers. On the other hand, a large stand-off distance makes the system sensitive to environmental disturbance, which degrades the ranging precision. To address this issue, an interferometry-based compensation device, which is also sensitive to weak echoes from noncooperative targets, is proposed to monitor the optical-path-length drifts and ensure accurate beat frequency recognition. Moreover, the device can record distance changes during the integration time of ranging and track a moving target precisely with improved temporal resolution. Owing to the high sensitivity and the validity of the compensation approach, the standard deviation in 10 measurements is better than 0.07 mm when targeting an aluminum sheet at approximately 152 m. Generally, with a large range, high relative precision, and low photon consumption, the novel technical scheme for laser ranging demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of applications, such as large equipment assembly and noncooperative-target tracking. Frequency-swept interferometry (FSI) is a powerful ranging method with high precision and immunity to ambient light. However, the stand-off distance of the current FSI-based ranging system for noncooperative targets is relatively short because the weak echo power cannot provide the needed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Here, we report a ranging method that combines FSI and the laser feedback technique. Compared with conventional FSI, the interference between the weak echo signal and the local oscillator occurs in the laser cavity, which enhances the signal spontaneously and then provides an improved SNR. In the experiments, the detection limit of the echo power is less than 0.1 fW, with a 1 mW probe beam. Based on the enhancement from the laser feedback technique, the system can detect a noncooperative target that is up to hundreds of meters away in space without extra optical amplifiers. On the other hand, a large stand-off distance makes the system sensitive to environmental disturbance, which degrades the ranging precision. To address this issue, an interferometry-based compensation device, which is also sensitive to weak echoes from noncooperative targets, is proposed to monitor the optical-path-length drifts and ensure accurate beat frequency recognition. Moreover, the device can record distance changes during the integration time of ranging and track a moving target precisely with improved temporal resolution. Owing to the high sensitivity and the validity of the compensation approach, the standard deviation in 10 measurements is better than 0.07 mm when targeting an aluminum sheet at approximately 152 m. Generally, with a large range, high relative precision, and low photon consumption, the novel technical scheme for laser ranging demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of applications, such as large equipment assembly and noncooperative-target tracking.
Continuous optical zoom microscope with extended depth of field and 3D reconstruction
Chao Liu, Zhao Jiang, Xin Wang, Yi Zheng, Yi-Wei Zheng, Qiong-Hua Wang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00066-0
摘要:
Microscope such as fluorescence microscope, confocal microscope and two-photon microscope plays an important role in life science, laser processing and other fields. However, most microscopes only have discrete zoom rates. In this paper, a continuous optical zoom microscope with extended depth of field and 3D reconstruction is demonstrated for the first time. It consists of a zoom objective lens, a microscope holder, an adjustable three-dimensional object stage, an Abbe condenser and an LED light source. The zoom objective lens is composed of several liquid lenses and solid lenses. By adjusting the applied voltage to the liquid lens, the proposed microscope can achieve a large continuous magnification from 10? to 60?. Moreover, an improved shape from focus (SFF) algorithm and image fusion algorithm are designed for 3D reproduction. Based on the liquid lenses, the axial focusing position can be adjusted to obtain images with different depths, and then the extended depth of field and 3D reconstruction can be realized. Our experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed microscope. The proposed microscope is expected to be applied in the fields of pathological diagnosis, biological detection, etc. Microscope such as fluorescence microscope, confocal microscope and two-photon microscope plays an important role in life science, laser processing and other fields. However, most microscopes only have discrete zoom rates. In this paper, a continuous optical zoom microscope with extended depth of field and 3D reconstruction is demonstrated for the first time. It consists of a zoom objective lens, a microscope holder, an adjustable three-dimensional object stage, an Abbe condenser and an LED light source. The zoom objective lens is composed of several liquid lenses and solid lenses. By adjusting the applied voltage to the liquid lens, the proposed microscope can achieve a large continuous magnification from 10? to 60?. Moreover, an improved shape from focus (SFF) algorithm and image fusion algorithm are designed for 3D reproduction. Based on the liquid lenses, the axial focusing position can be adjusted to obtain images with different depths, and then the extended depth of field and 3D reconstruction can be realized. Our experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed microscope. The proposed microscope is expected to be applied in the fields of pathological diagnosis, biological detection, etc.
From compressive sampling to compressive tasking: retrieving semantics in compressed domain with low bandwidth
Zhihong Zhang, Bo Zhang, Xin Yuan, Siming Zheng, Xiongfei Su, Jinli Suo, David J. Brady, Qionghai Dai
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00065-1
摘要:
High-throughput imaging is highly desirable in intelligent analysis of computer vision tasks. In conventional design, throughput is limited by the separation between physical image capture and digital post processing. Computational imaging increases throughput by mixing analog and digital processing through the image capture pipeline. Yet, recent advances of computational imaging focus on the “compressive sampling”, this precludes the wide applications in practical tasks. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the next step for computational imaging built on snapshot compressive imaging (SCI) and semantic computer vision (SCV) tasks, which have independently emerged over the past decade as basic computational imaging platforms.SCI is a physical layer process that maximizes information capacity per sample while minimizing system size, power and cost. SCV is an abstraction layer process that analyzes image data as objects and features, rather than simple pixel maps. In current practice, SCI and SCV are independent and sequential. This concatenated pipeline results in the following problems: i) a large amount of resources are spent on task-irrelevant computation and transmission, ii) the sampling and design efficiency of SCI is attenuated, and iii) the final performance of SCV is limited by the reconstruction errors of SCI. Bearing these concerns in mind, this paper takes one step further aiming to bridge the gap between SCI and SCV to take full advantage of both approaches.After reviewing the current status of SCI, we propose a novel joint framework by conducting SCV on raw measurements captured by SCI to select the region of interest, and then perform reconstruction on these regions to speed up processing time. We use our recently built SCI prototype to verify the framework. Preliminary results are presented and the prospects for a joint SCI and SCV regime are discussed. By conducting computer vision tasks in the compressed domain, we envision that a new era of snapshot compressive imaging with limited end-to-end bandwidth is coming. High-throughput imaging is highly desirable in intelligent analysis of computer vision tasks. In conventional design, throughput is limited by the separation between physical image capture and digital post processing. Computational imaging increases throughput by mixing analog and digital processing through the image capture pipeline. Yet, recent advances of computational imaging focus on the “compressive sampling”, this precludes the wide applications in practical tasks. This paper presents a systematic analysis of the next step for computational imaging built on snapshot compressive imaging (SCI) and semantic computer vision (SCV) tasks, which have independently emerged over the past decade as basic computational imaging platforms.SCI is a physical layer process that maximizes information capacity per sample while minimizing system size, power and cost. SCV is an abstraction layer process that analyzes image data as objects and features, rather than simple pixel maps. In current practice, SCI and SCV are independent and sequential. This concatenated pipeline results in the following problems: i) a large amount of resources are spent on task-irrelevant computation and transmission, ii) the sampling and design efficiency of SCI is attenuated, and iii) the final performance of SCV is limited by the reconstruction errors of SCI. Bearing these concerns in mind, this paper takes one step further aiming to bridge the gap between SCI and SCV to take full advantage of both approaches.After reviewing the current status of SCI, we propose a novel joint framework by conducting SCV on raw measurements captured by SCI to select the region of interest, and then perform reconstruction on these regions to speed up processing time. We use our recently built SCI prototype to verify the framework. Preliminary results are presented and the prospects for a joint SCI and SCV regime are discussed. By conducting computer vision tasks in the compressed domain, we envision that a new era of snapshot compressive imaging with limited end-to-end bandwidth is coming.
Ultrafast Raman fiber laser: a review and prospect
Jiaqi Zhou, Weiwei Pan, Weiao Qi, Xinru Cao, Zhi Cheng, Yan Feng
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00064-2
摘要:
Ultrafast Raman fiber laser has been proved to be an effective method to obtain ultrafast optical pulses at special wavelength. Yet, compared with conventional rare-earth doped counterparts, it is challenging for Raman fiber lasers to generate pulses with high pulse energy and short pulse duration. Here, we review three categories of ultrafast Raman fiber laser technologies and give detailed discussions on the advantages and challenges of each. In regards to mode-locking, different saturable-absorbers-based fiber lasers are compared and their common problem resulting from long cavity length are discussed. In terms of synchronously-pumping, several approaches to match the repetition rate of pulsed pump with the length of Raman fiber cavity are discussed, while the technical complexity of each method is analyzed. Moreover, the recently developed technology termed as nonlinear optical gain modulation (NOGM) is introduced, which turns out to be a simple and quality solution to generate high-energy femtosecond pulses with wavelength agility. Compared with the others, NOGM gathers various advantages including simple structure, long-term stability, high pulse energy and short pulse duration, which may effectively promote application expansion of ultrafast Raman fiber laser in the near future. Ultrafast Raman fiber laser has been proved to be an effective method to obtain ultrafast optical pulses at special wavelength. Yet, compared with conventional rare-earth doped counterparts, it is challenging for Raman fiber lasers to generate pulses with high pulse energy and short pulse duration. Here, we review three categories of ultrafast Raman fiber laser technologies and give detailed discussions on the advantages and challenges of each. In regards to mode-locking, different saturable-absorbers-based fiber lasers are compared and their common problem resulting from long cavity length are discussed. In terms of synchronously-pumping, several approaches to match the repetition rate of pulsed pump with the length of Raman fiber cavity are discussed, while the technical complexity of each method is analyzed. Moreover, the recently developed technology termed as nonlinear optical gain modulation (NOGM) is introduced, which turns out to be a simple and quality solution to generate high-energy femtosecond pulses with wavelength agility. Compared with the others, NOGM gathers various advantages including simple structure, long-term stability, high pulse energy and short pulse duration, which may effectively promote application expansion of ultrafast Raman fiber laser in the near future.
Development of China’s first space-borne aerosol-cloud high-spectral-resolution lidar: retrieval algorithm and airborne demonstration
Ju Ke, Yingshan Sun, Changzhe Dong, Xingying Zhang, Zijun Wang, Liqing Lyu, Wei Zhu, Albert Ansmann, Lin Su, Lingbing Bu, Da Xiao, Shuaibo Wang, Sijie Chen, Jiqiao Liu, Weibiao Chen, Dong Liu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00063-3
摘要:
Aerosols and clouds greatly affect the Earth’s radiation budget and global climate. Light detection and ranging (lidar) has been recognized as a promising active remote sensing technique for the vertical observations of aerosols and clouds. China launched its first space-borne aerosol-cloud high-spectral-resolution lidar (ACHSRL) on April 16, 2022, which is capable for high accuracy profiling of aerosols and clouds around the globe. This study presents a retrieval algorithm for aerosol and cloud optical properties from ACHSRL which were compared with the end-to-end Monte-Carlo simulations and validated with the data from an airborne flight with the ACHSRL prototype (A2P) instrument. Using imaging denoising, threshold discrimination, and iterative reconstruction methods, this algorithm was developed for calibration, feature detection, and extinction coefficient (EC) retrievals. The simulation results show that 95.4% of the backscatter coefficient (BSC) have an error less than 12% while 95.4% of EC have an error less than 24%. Cirrus and marine and urban aerosols were identified based on the airborne measurements over different surface types. Then, comparisons were made with U.S. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) profiles, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the ground-based sun photometers. High correlations (R > 0.79) were found between BSC (EC) profiles of A2P and CALIOP over forest and town cover, while the correlation coefficients are 0.57 for BSC and 0.58 for EC over ocean cover; the aerosol optical depth retrievals have correlation coefficient of 0.71 with MODIS data and show spatial variations consistent with those from the sun photometers. The algorithm developed for ACHSRL in this study can be directly employed for future space-borne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) and its data products will also supplement CALIOP data coverage for global observations of aerosol and cloud properties. Aerosols and clouds greatly affect the Earth’s radiation budget and global climate. Light detection and ranging (lidar) has been recognized as a promising active remote sensing technique for the vertical observations of aerosols and clouds. China launched its first space-borne aerosol-cloud high-spectral-resolution lidar (ACHSRL) on April 16, 2022, which is capable for high accuracy profiling of aerosols and clouds around the globe. This study presents a retrieval algorithm for aerosol and cloud optical properties from ACHSRL which were compared with the end-to-end Monte-Carlo simulations and validated with the data from an airborne flight with the ACHSRL prototype (A2P) instrument. Using imaging denoising, threshold discrimination, and iterative reconstruction methods, this algorithm was developed for calibration, feature detection, and extinction coefficient (EC) retrievals. The simulation results show that 95.4% of the backscatter coefficient (BSC) have an error less than 12% while 95.4% of EC have an error less than 24%. Cirrus and marine and urban aerosols were identified based on the airborne measurements over different surface types. Then, comparisons were made with U.S. Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) profiles, Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), and the ground-based sun photometers. High correlations (R > 0.79) were found between BSC (EC) profiles of A2P and CALIOP over forest and town cover, while the correlation coefficients are 0.57 for BSC and 0.58 for EC over ocean cover; the aerosol optical depth retrievals have correlation coefficient of 0.71 with MODIS data and show spatial variations consistent with those from the sun photometers. The algorithm developed for ACHSRL in this study can be directly employed for future space-borne high-spectral-resolution lidar (HSRL) and its data products will also supplement CALIOP data coverage for global observations of aerosol and cloud properties.
Deep learning-enabled compact optical trigonometric operator with metasurface
Zihan Zhao, Yue Wang, Chunsheng Guan, Kuang Zhang, Qun Wu, Haoyu Li, Jian Liu, Shah Nawaz Burokur, Xumin Ding
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00062-4
摘要:
In this paper, a novel strategy based on a metasurface composed of simple and compact unit cells to achieve ultra-high-speed trigonometric operations under specific input values is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. An electromagnetic wave (EM)-based optical diffractive neural network with only one hidden layer is physically built to perform four trigonometric operations (sine, cosine, tangent, and cotangent functions). Under the unique composite input mode strategy, the designed optical trigonometric operator responds to incident light source modes that represent different trigonometric operations and input values (within one period), and generates correct and clear calculated results in the output layer. Such a wave-based operation is implemented with specific input values, and the proposed concept work may offer breakthrough inspiration to achieve integrable optical computing devices and photonic signal processors with ultra-fast running speeds. In this paper, a novel strategy based on a metasurface composed of simple and compact unit cells to achieve ultra-high-speed trigonometric operations under specific input values is theoretically and experimentally demonstrated. An electromagnetic wave (EM)-based optical diffractive neural network with only one hidden layer is physically built to perform four trigonometric operations (sine, cosine, tangent, and cotangent functions). Under the unique composite input mode strategy, the designed optical trigonometric operator responds to incident light source modes that represent different trigonometric operations and input values (within one period), and generates correct and clear calculated results in the output layer. Such a wave-based operation is implemented with specific input values, and the proposed concept work may offer breakthrough inspiration to achieve integrable optical computing devices and photonic signal processors with ultra-fast running speeds.
Wear-resistant surface coloring by ultrathin optical coatings
Jiao Geng, Liping Shi, Junhuan Ni, Qiannan Jia, Wei Yan, Min Qiu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00061-5
摘要:
We design, fabricate, optically and mechanically characterize wearable ultrathin coatings on various substrates, including sapphire, glass and silicon wafer. Extremely hard ceramic materials titanium nitride (TiN), aluminium nitride (AlN), and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) are employed as reflective, isolated and absorptive coating layer, respectively. Two types of coatings have been demonstrated. First, we deposit TiAlN after TiN on various substrates (TiAlN-TiN, total thicknesses <100 nm), achieving vivid and viewing-angle independent surface colors. The colors can be tuned by varying the thickness of TiAlN layer. The wear resistance of the colorful ultrathin optical coatings is verified by scratch tests. The Mohs hardness of commonly used surface coloring made of Si-/Ge-metals on substrates is <2.5, as soft as fingernail. However, the Mohs hardness of our TiAlN-TiN on substrates is evaulated to be 7-9, harder than quartz. Second, Fano-resonant optical coating (FROC), which can transmit and reflect the same color as a beam split filter is also obtained by successively coating TiAlN-TiN-AlN-TiN (four-layer film with a total thickness of 130 nm) on transparent substrates. The FROC coating is as hard as glass. Such wearable and color-tunable thin-film structural colors and filters may be attractive for many practical applications such as sunglasses. We design, fabricate, optically and mechanically characterize wearable ultrathin coatings on various substrates, including sapphire, glass and silicon wafer. Extremely hard ceramic materials titanium nitride (TiN), aluminium nitride (AlN), and titanium aluminium nitride (TiAlN) are employed as reflective, isolated and absorptive coating layer, respectively. Two types of coatings have been demonstrated. First, we deposit TiAlN after TiN on various substrates (TiAlN-TiN, total thicknesses <100 nm), achieving vivid and viewing-angle independent surface colors. The colors can be tuned by varying the thickness of TiAlN layer. The wear resistance of the colorful ultrathin optical coatings is verified by scratch tests. The Mohs hardness of commonly used surface coloring made of Si-/Ge-metals on substrates is <2.5, as soft as fingernail. However, the Mohs hardness of our TiAlN-TiN on substrates is evaulated to be 7-9, harder than quartz. Second, Fano-resonant optical coating (FROC), which can transmit and reflect the same color as a beam split filter is also obtained by successively coating TiAlN-TiN-AlN-TiN (four-layer film with a total thickness of 130 nm) on transparent substrates. The FROC coating is as hard as glass. Such wearable and color-tunable thin-film structural colors and filters may be attractive for many practical applications such as sunglasses.
Adaptive optical microscopy via virtual-imaging-assisted wavefront sensing for high-resolution tissue imaging
Zhou Zhou, Jiangfeng Huang, Xiang Li, Xiujuan Gao, Zhongyun Chen, Zhenfei Jiao, Zhihong Zhang, Qingming Luo, Ling Fu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00060-6
摘要:
Adaptive optics (AO) is a powerful tool for optical microscopy to counteract the effects of optical aberrations and improve the imaging performance in biological tissues. The diversity of sample characteristics entails the use of different AO schemes to measure the underlying aberrations. Here, we present an indirect wavefront sensing method leveraging a virtual imaging scheme and a structural-similarity-based shift measurement algorithm to enable aberration measurement using intrinsic structures even with temporally varying signals. We achieved high-resolution two-photon imaging in a variety of biological samples, including fixed biological tissues and living animals, after aberration correction. We present AO-incorporated subtractive imaging to show that our method can be readily integrated with resolution enhancement techniques to obtain higher resolution in biological tissues. The robustness of our method to signal variation is demonstrated by both simulations and aberration measurement on neurons exhibiting spontaneous activity in a living larval zebrafish. Adaptive optics (AO) is a powerful tool for optical microscopy to counteract the effects of optical aberrations and improve the imaging performance in biological tissues. The diversity of sample characteristics entails the use of different AO schemes to measure the underlying aberrations. Here, we present an indirect wavefront sensing method leveraging a virtual imaging scheme and a structural-similarity-based shift measurement algorithm to enable aberration measurement using intrinsic structures even with temporally varying signals. We achieved high-resolution two-photon imaging in a variety of biological samples, including fixed biological tissues and living animals, after aberration correction. We present AO-incorporated subtractive imaging to show that our method can be readily integrated with resolution enhancement techniques to obtain higher resolution in biological tissues. The robustness of our method to signal variation is demonstrated by both simulations and aberration measurement on neurons exhibiting spontaneous activity in a living larval zebrafish.
Flexible minimally invasive coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) measurement method with tapered optical fiber probe for single-cell application
Tong Wang, Junfeng Jiang, Kun Liu, Shuang Wang, Panpan Niu, Yize Liu, Tiegen Liu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00058-0
摘要:
We proposed and demonstrated a flexible, endoscopic, and minimally invasive coherent anti-Raman Stokes scattering (CARS) measurement method for single-cell application, employing a tapered optical fiber probe. A few-mode fiber (FMF), whose generated four-wave mixing band is out of CARS signals, was selected to fabricate tapered optical fiber probes, deliver CARS excitation pulses, and collect CARS signals. The adiabatic tapered fiber probe with a diameter of 11.61 μm can focus CARS excitation lights without mismatch at the focal point. The measurements for proof-of-concept were made with methanol, ethanol, cyclohexane, and acetone injected into simulated cells. The experimental results show that the tapered optical fiber probe can detect carbon-hydrogen (C–H) bond-rich substances and their concentration. To our best knowledge, this optical fiber probe provides the minimum size among probes for detecting CARS signals. These results pave the way for minimally invasive live-cell detection in the future. We proposed and demonstrated a flexible, endoscopic, and minimally invasive coherent anti-Raman Stokes scattering (CARS) measurement method for single-cell application, employing a tapered optical fiber probe. A few-mode fiber (FMF), whose generated four-wave mixing band is out of CARS signals, was selected to fabricate tapered optical fiber probes, deliver CARS excitation pulses, and collect CARS signals. The adiabatic tapered fiber probe with a diameter of 11.61 μm can focus CARS excitation lights without mismatch at the focal point. The measurements for proof-of-concept were made with methanol, ethanol, cyclohexane, and acetone injected into simulated cells. The experimental results show that the tapered optical fiber probe can detect carbon-hydrogen (C–H) bond-rich substances and their concentration. To our best knowledge, this optical fiber probe provides the minimum size among probes for detecting CARS signals. These results pave the way for minimally invasive live-cell detection in the future.
Metasurface with dynamic chiral meta-atoms for spin multiplexing hologram and low observable reflection
He Wang, Zhe Qin, Lingling Huang, Yongfeng Li, Ruizhe Zhao, Hongqiang Zhou, Haoyang He, Jieqiu Zhang, Shaobo Qu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00057-1
摘要:
Spin light manipulation based on chiral metasurfaces is a striking hotspot that has intrigued huge attention. Circular dichroism, a unique phenomenon of chiral atoms/molecules, has been regarded as another auxiliary dimension for guiding electromagnetic waves, which has been explored in the field of artificial material sciences yet a challenging issue. Here, a generic strategy based on dynamic chiral meta-atom for revealing strong circular dichroism as well as applicable electromagnetic functionality is proposed in microwave regime. We demonstrate a dynamic metasurface that enables the fully independent holograms reconstruction for one circular polarization or the other at the active operating state. On the other hand, the electromagnetic scattering is realized for lowering observable backward reflection at the passive state. Numerical simulation and experimental verification are conducted to manifest the feasibility. It is expected that the proposed strategy can be applied to broaden the horizon for dynamic chiral meta-devices and may find applications in information encryption, anti-counterfeiting, and other dynamic systems. Spin light manipulation based on chiral metasurfaces is a striking hotspot that has intrigued huge attention. Circular dichroism, a unique phenomenon of chiral atoms/molecules, has been regarded as another auxiliary dimension for guiding electromagnetic waves, which has been explored in the field of artificial material sciences yet a challenging issue. Here, a generic strategy based on dynamic chiral meta-atom for revealing strong circular dichroism as well as applicable electromagnetic functionality is proposed in microwave regime. We demonstrate a dynamic metasurface that enables the fully independent holograms reconstruction for one circular polarization or the other at the active operating state. On the other hand, the electromagnetic scattering is realized for lowering observable backward reflection at the passive state. Numerical simulation and experimental verification are conducted to manifest the feasibility. It is expected that the proposed strategy can be applied to broaden the horizon for dynamic chiral meta-devices and may find applications in information encryption, anti-counterfeiting, and other dynamic systems.
Tunable narrow-band single-channel add-drop integrated optical filter with ultrawide FSR
Chunlei Sun, Yuexin Yin, Zequn Chen, Yuting Ye, Ye Luo, Hui Ma, Lichun Wang, Maoliang Wei, Jialing Jian, Renjie Tang, Hao Dai, Jianghong Wu, Junying Li, Daming Zhang, Hongtao Lin, Lan Li
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00056-2
摘要:
Free-spectral-range (FSR)-free optical filters have always been a critical challenge for photonic integrated circuits. A high-performance FSR-free filter is highly desired for communication, spectroscopy, and sensing applications. Despite significant progress in integrated optical filters, the FSR-free filter with a tunable narrow-band, high out-of-band rejection, and large fabrication tolerance has rarely been demonstrated. In this paper, we propose an exact and robust design method for add-drop filters (ADFs) with an FSR-free operation capability, a sub-nanometer optical bandwidth, and a high out-of-band rejection (OBR) ratio. The achieved filter has a 3-dB bandwidth of < 0.5 nm and an OBR ratio of 21.5 dB within a large waveband of 220 nm, which to the best of our knowledge, is the largest-FSR ADF demonstrated on a silicon photonic platform. The filter exhibits large tunability of 12.3 nm with a heating efficiency of 97 pm/mW and maintains the FSR-free feature in the whole tuning process. In addition, we fabricated a series of ADFs with different periods, which all showed reliable and excellent performances. Free-spectral-range (FSR)-free optical filters have always been a critical challenge for photonic integrated circuits. A high-performance FSR-free filter is highly desired for communication, spectroscopy, and sensing applications. Despite significant progress in integrated optical filters, the FSR-free filter with a tunable narrow-band, high out-of-band rejection, and large fabrication tolerance has rarely been demonstrated. In this paper, we propose an exact and robust design method for add-drop filters (ADFs) with an FSR-free operation capability, a sub-nanometer optical bandwidth, and a high out-of-band rejection (OBR) ratio. The achieved filter has a 3-dB bandwidth of < 0.5 nm and an OBR ratio of 21.5 dB within a large waveband of 220 nm, which to the best of our knowledge, is the largest-FSR ADF demonstrated on a silicon photonic platform. The filter exhibits large tunability of 12.3 nm with a heating efficiency of 97 pm/mW and maintains the FSR-free feature in the whole tuning process. In addition, we fabricated a series of ADFs with different periods, which all showed reliable and excellent performances.
Fiber laser development enabled by machine learning: review and prospect
Min Jiang, Hanshuo Wu, Yi An, Tianyue Hou, Qi Chang, Liangjin Huang, Jun Li, Rongtao Su, Pu Zhou
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00055-3
摘要:
In recent years, machine learning, especially various deep neural networks, as an emerging technique for data analysis and processing, has brought novel insights into the development of fiber lasers, in particular complex, dynamical, or disturbance-sensitive fiber laser systems. This paper highlights recent attractive research that adopted machine learning in the fiber laser field, including design and manipulation for on-demand laser output, prediction and control of nonlinear effects, reconstruction and evaluation of laser properties, as well as robust control for lasers and laser systems. We also comment on the challenges and potential future development. In recent years, machine learning, especially various deep neural networks, as an emerging technique for data analysis and processing, has brought novel insights into the development of fiber lasers, in particular complex, dynamical, or disturbance-sensitive fiber laser systems. This paper highlights recent attractive research that adopted machine learning in the fiber laser field, including design and manipulation for on-demand laser output, prediction and control of nonlinear effects, reconstruction and evaluation of laser properties, as well as robust control for lasers and laser systems. We also comment on the challenges and potential future development.
Ultrafast (600 ps) α-ray scintillators
Richeng Lin, Yanming Zhu, Liang Chen, Wei Zheng, Mengxuan Xu, Jinlu Ruan, Renfu Li, Titao Li, Zhuogeng Lin, Lu Cheng, Ying Ding, Feng Huang, Xiaoping Ouyang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00054-4
摘要:
Large-size scintillators with high efficiency and ultrafast radiation fluorescence have shown more potential in the applications to ionizing radiation detection of medical diagnosis, nuclear control and high-energy physics. Currently, although traditional scintillators have made tremendous progress in scintillation efficiency, there are still challenges left in fluorescence lifetime. Faced with that problem, we adopted 2-inch ZnO as the substrate and doped gallium as activator to realize an ultrafast fluorescence excited by α-ray, of which the decay time is only 600 ps that is the shortest scintillation decay time reported so far. The results show that the shallow donor related with gallium not only effectively suppresses band-edge self-absorption, but makes ultrafast radiation possible, which gets gallium-doped ZnO as a potential scintillator for high-quality ultrafast dynamic imaging proved. Large-size scintillators with high efficiency and ultrafast radiation fluorescence have shown more potential in the applications to ionizing radiation detection of medical diagnosis, nuclear control and high-energy physics. Currently, although traditional scintillators have made tremendous progress in scintillation efficiency, there are still challenges left in fluorescence lifetime. Faced with that problem, we adopted 2-inch ZnO as the substrate and doped gallium as activator to realize an ultrafast fluorescence excited by α-ray, of which the decay time is only 600 ps that is the shortest scintillation decay time reported so far. The results show that the shallow donor related with gallium not only effectively suppresses band-edge self-absorption, but makes ultrafast radiation possible, which gets gallium-doped ZnO as a potential scintillator for high-quality ultrafast dynamic imaging proved.
Nonvolatile reconfigurable terahertz wave modulator
Shoujun Zhang, Xieyu Chen, Kuan Liu, Haiyang Li, Yuehong Xu, Xiaohan Jiang, Yihan Xu, Qingwei Wang, Tun Cao, Zhen Tian
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00053-5
摘要:
Miniaturized nonvolatile reconfigurable optical components with a subwavelength thickness, extremely compact size, high-speed response, and low power consumption will be the core of next-generation all-optical integrated devices and photonic computing to replace traditional bulky optical devices and integrated circuits, which are reaching physical limitations of Moore’s law. Metasurfaces, as ultrathin planar surfaces, have played a major role in controlling the amplitude, phase, and polarization of electromagnetic waves and can be combined with various active modulation methods to realize a variety of functional devices. However, most existing reconfigurable devices are bounded in volatile nature with constant power to maintain and single functionality, which restricts their further extensive applications. Chalcogenide phase change materials (PCM) have attracted considerable attention due to their unique optical properties in the visible and infrared domains, whereas in the terahertz (THz) regime, research on the reversible phase transition in large-scale areas and applications of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) are still under exploration. Here, we achieved reversible, repeated, and large-area switching of GST with the help of optical and thermal stimuli. Large-area amorphization with a 1 cm diameter of GST is realized by using a single laser pulse. Then, we incorporate GST into metasurface designs to realize nonvolatile, reconfigurable, multilevel, and broadband terahertz modulators, including the anomalous deflector, metalens, and focusing optical vortex (FOV) generator. Experimental results verify the feasibility of multilevel modulation of THz waves in a broadband frequency range. Moreover, the modulators are reusable and nonvolatile. The proposed approach presents novel avenues of nonvolatile and reconfigurable metasurface designs and can enable wide potential applications in imaging, sensing, and high-speed communications. Miniaturized nonvolatile reconfigurable optical components with a subwavelength thickness, extremely compact size, high-speed response, and low power consumption will be the core of next-generation all-optical integrated devices and photonic computing to replace traditional bulky optical devices and integrated circuits, which are reaching physical limitations of Moore’s law. Metasurfaces, as ultrathin planar surfaces, have played a major role in controlling the amplitude, phase, and polarization of electromagnetic waves and can be combined with various active modulation methods to realize a variety of functional devices. However, most existing reconfigurable devices are bounded in volatile nature with constant power to maintain and single functionality, which restricts their further extensive applications. Chalcogenide phase change materials (PCM) have attracted considerable attention due to their unique optical properties in the visible and infrared domains, whereas in the terahertz (THz) regime, research on the reversible phase transition in large-scale areas and applications of Ge2Sb2Te5 (GST) are still under exploration. Here, we achieved reversible, repeated, and large-area switching of GST with the help of optical and thermal stimuli. Large-area amorphization with a 1 cm diameter of GST is realized by using a single laser pulse. Then, we incorporate GST into metasurface designs to realize nonvolatile, reconfigurable, multilevel, and broadband terahertz modulators, including the anomalous deflector, metalens, and focusing optical vortex (FOV) generator. Experimental results verify the feasibility of multilevel modulation of THz waves in a broadband frequency range. Moreover, the modulators are reusable and nonvolatile. The proposed approach presents novel avenues of nonvolatile and reconfigurable metasurface designs and can enable wide potential applications in imaging, sensing, and high-speed communications.
High-speed Si-Ge avalanche photodiodes
Binhao Wang, Jifang Mu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00052-6
摘要:
High-speed optical interconnects of data centers and high performance computers (HPC) have become the rapid development direction in the field of optical communication owing to the explosive growth of market demand. Currently, optical interconnect systems are moving towards higher capacity and integration. High-sensitivity receivers with avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are paid more attention due to the capability to enhance gain bandwidth. The impact ionization coefficient ratio is one crucial parameter for avalanche photodiode optimization, which significantly affects the excess noise and the gain bandwidth product (GBP). The development of silicon-germanium (Si-Ge) APDs are promising thanks to the low impact ionization coefficient ratio of silicon, the simple structure, and the CMOS compatible process. Separate absorption charge multiplication (SACM) structures are typically adopted in Si-Ge APDs to achieve high bandwidth and low noise. This paper reviews design and optimization in high-speed Si-Ge APDs, including advanced APD structures, APD modeling and APD receivers. High-speed optical interconnects of data centers and high performance computers (HPC) have become the rapid development direction in the field of optical communication owing to the explosive growth of market demand. Currently, optical interconnect systems are moving towards higher capacity and integration. High-sensitivity receivers with avalanche photodiodes (APDs) are paid more attention due to the capability to enhance gain bandwidth. The impact ionization coefficient ratio is one crucial parameter for avalanche photodiode optimization, which significantly affects the excess noise and the gain bandwidth product (GBP). The development of silicon-germanium (Si-Ge) APDs are promising thanks to the low impact ionization coefficient ratio of silicon, the simple structure, and the CMOS compatible process. Separate absorption charge multiplication (SACM) structures are typically adopted in Si-Ge APDs to achieve high bandwidth and low noise. This paper reviews design and optimization in high-speed Si-Ge APDs, including advanced APD structures, APD modeling and APD receivers.
Detection of surface defects and subsurface defects of polished optics with multisensor image fusion
Huanyu Sun, Shiling Wang, Xiaobo Hu, Hongjie Liu, Xiaoyan Zhou, Jin Huang, Xinglei Cheng, Feng Sun, Yubo Liu, Dong Liu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00051-7
摘要:
Surface defects (SDs) and subsurface defects (SSDs) are the key factors decreasing the laser damage threshold of optics. Due to the spatially stacked structure, accurately detecting and distinguishing them has become a major challenge. Herein a detection method for SDs and SSDs with multisensor image fusion is proposed. The optics is illuminated by a laser under dark field condition, and the defects are excited to generate scattering and fluorescence lights, which are received by two image sensors in a wide-field microscope. With the modified algorithms of image registration and feature-level fusion, different types of defects are identified and extracted from the scattering and fluorescence images. Experiments show that two imaging modes can be realized simultaneously by multisensor image fusion, and HF etching verifies that SDs and SSDs of polished optics can be accurately distinguished. This method provides a more targeted reference for the evaluation and control of the defects of optics, and exhibits potential in the application of material surface research. Surface defects (SDs) and subsurface defects (SSDs) are the key factors decreasing the laser damage threshold of optics. Due to the spatially stacked structure, accurately detecting and distinguishing them has become a major challenge. Herein a detection method for SDs and SSDs with multisensor image fusion is proposed. The optics is illuminated by a laser under dark field condition, and the defects are excited to generate scattering and fluorescence lights, which are received by two image sensors in a wide-field microscope. With the modified algorithms of image registration and feature-level fusion, different types of defects are identified and extracted from the scattering and fluorescence images. Experiments show that two imaging modes can be realized simultaneously by multisensor image fusion, and HF etching verifies that SDs and SSDs of polished optics can be accurately distinguished. This method provides a more targeted reference for the evaluation and control of the defects of optics, and exhibits potential in the application of material surface research.
Intracavity spherical aberration for selective generation of single-transverse-mode Laguerre-Gaussian output with order up to 95
Quan Sheng, Aihua Wang, Yuanyuan Ma, Sijia Wang, Meng Wang, Zheng Shi, Junjie Liu, Shijie Fu, Wei Shi, Jianquan Yao, Takashige Omatsu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00050-8
摘要:
We investigate the generation of single-transverse-mode Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) emission from a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4, 1064 nm laser using mode selection via intracavity spherical aberration (SA). We present both theoretical and experimental investigations, examining the limits of the order (both radial and angular indices) of the LG modes which can be produced, along with the resultant output power. We found that in order to generate single-mode emission of low-order LG modes which have relatively small beam diameters, lenses with shorter focal-length were required (to better differentiate neighboring LG modes via SA). The converse was true of LG modes with high-order. Through appropriate choice of the focal length of the intracavity lens, we were able to generate single-mode, LG0,±m laser output with angular indices m selectable from 1 to 95, as well as those with non-zero radial indices p of up to 4. We investigate the generation of single-transverse-mode Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) emission from a diode-end-pumped Nd:YVO4, 1064 nm laser using mode selection via intracavity spherical aberration (SA). We present both theoretical and experimental investigations, examining the limits of the order (both radial and angular indices) of the LG modes which can be produced, along with the resultant output power. We found that in order to generate single-mode emission of low-order LG modes which have relatively small beam diameters, lenses with shorter focal-length were required (to better differentiate neighboring LG modes via SA). The converse was true of LG modes with high-order. Through appropriate choice of the focal length of the intracavity lens, we were able to generate single-mode, LG0,±m laser output with angular indices m selectable from 1 to 95, as well as those with non-zero radial indices p of up to 4.
Ultrafast modulation of valley dynamics in multiple WS2 − Ag gratings strong coupling system
Le-Yi Zhao, Hai Wang, Hai-Yu Wang, Qiang Zhou, Xu-Lin Zhang, Tong Cui, Lei Wang, Tian-Yu Liu, Yu-Xiao Han, Yang Luo, Yuan-Yuan Yue, Mu-Sen Song, Hong-Bo Sun
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00049-1
摘要:
Strong light-matter interactions in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with robust spin-valley degrees of freedom open up the prospect of valleytronic devices. A thorough understanding on the dynamics of the valley polarizations in the strong coupling regime is urgently required. Here, multiple polarized TMDCs-SPPs hybrid systems were constructed by combining monolayer WS2 flakes to linear, circular, and spiral Ag gratings, resulting in linear and circular polarized modulation on the coherent hybrid states, respectively. Particularly, valley polaritons can be tailored asymmetrically by chiral strong coupling regime. Furthermore, the dynamics of the polarized polaritons were directly analyzed by transient absorption (TA) measurement. Both of the linear and circular polarization difference in the TA spectra can be retained for a remarkable long time, leading to a polarized PL even at room temperature. More importantly, in the chiral strong coupled WS2-spiral Ag grating devices, the mechanism of the asymmetrical valley-polarized PL (p σ+ = 14.9% and p σ- = 10.8%) is proved by the opposite valley polarization dynamics in the circularly polarized TA spectra. The multiple polarization modulation in monolayer TMDCs-SPPs strong coupling devices could provide a viable route toward multiple polarization polaritonic devices. Strong light-matter interactions in two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) with robust spin-valley degrees of freedom open up the prospect of valleytronic devices. A thorough understanding on the dynamics of the valley polarizations in the strong coupling regime is urgently required. Here, multiple polarized TMDCs-SPPs hybrid systems were constructed by combining monolayer WS2 flakes to linear, circular, and spiral Ag gratings, resulting in linear and circular polarized modulation on the coherent hybrid states, respectively. Particularly, valley polaritons can be tailored asymmetrically by chiral strong coupling regime. Furthermore, the dynamics of the polarized polaritons were directly analyzed by transient absorption (TA) measurement. Both of the linear and circular polarization difference in the TA spectra can be retained for a remarkable long time, leading to a polarized PL even at room temperature. More importantly, in the chiral strong coupled WS2-spiral Ag grating devices, the mechanism of the asymmetrical valley-polarized PL (p σ+ = 14.9% and p σ- = 10.8%) is proved by the opposite valley polarization dynamics in the circularly polarized TA spectra. The multiple polarization modulation in monolayer TMDCs-SPPs strong coupling devices could provide a viable route toward multiple polarization polaritonic devices.
40-user fully connected entanglement-based quantum key distribution network without trusted node
Xu Liu, Jingyuan Liu, Rong Xue, Heqing Wang, Hao Li, Xue Feng, Fang Liu, Kaiyu Cui, Zhen Wang, Lixing You, Yidong Huang, Wei Zhang
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00048-2
摘要:
Quantum key distribution (QKD) would play an important role in future information technologies due to its theoretically proven security based on the laws of quantum mechanics. How to realize QKDs among multiple users in an effective and simple way is crucial for its real applications in communication networks. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a fully connected QKD network without trusted node for a large number of users. Using flexible wavelength division multiplexing/demultiplexing and space division multiplexing, entanglement resources generated by a broadband energy-time entangled quantum light source are distributed to 40 users. Any two users share a part of entanglement resources, by which QKD is established between them. As a result, it realizes a fully connected network with 40 users and 780 QKD links. The performance of this network architecture is also discussed theoretically, showing its potential on developing quantum communication networks with large user numbers owing to its simplicity, scalability, and high efficiency. Quantum key distribution (QKD) would play an important role in future information technologies due to its theoretically proven security based on the laws of quantum mechanics. How to realize QKDs among multiple users in an effective and simple way is crucial for its real applications in communication networks. In this work, we propose and demonstrate a fully connected QKD network without trusted node for a large number of users. Using flexible wavelength division multiplexing/demultiplexing and space division multiplexing, entanglement resources generated by a broadband energy-time entangled quantum light source are distributed to 40 users. Any two users share a part of entanglement resources, by which QKD is established between them. As a result, it realizes a fully connected network with 40 users and 780 QKD links. The performance of this network architecture is also discussed theoretically, showing its potential on developing quantum communication networks with large user numbers owing to its simplicity, scalability, and high efficiency.
Biomimetic sapphire windows enabled by inside-out femtosecond laser deep-scribing
Xue-Qing Liu, Yong-Lai Zhang, Qian-Kun Li, Jia-Xin Zheng, Yi-Ming Lu, Saulius Juodkazis, Qi-Dai Chen, Hong-Bo Sun
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00047-3
摘要:
Femtosecond laser machining of biomimetic micro/nanostructures with high aspect ratio (larger than 10) on ultrahard materials, such as sapphire, is a challenging task, because the uncontrollable surface damage usually results in poor surface structures, especially for deep scribing. Here, we report an inside-out femtosecond laser deep scribing technology in combination with etching process for fabricating bio-inspired micro/nanostructures with high-aspect-ratio on sapphire. To effectively avoid the uncontrollable damage at the solid/air interface, a sacrificial layer of silicon oxide was employed for surface protection. High-quality microstructures with an aspect ratio as high as 80:1 have been fabricated on sapphire surface. As a proof-of-concept application, we produced a moth-eye inspired antireflective window with sub-wavelength pyramid arrays on sapphire surface, by which broadband (3–5 μm) and high transmittance (98% at 4 μm, the best results reported so far) have been achieved. The sacrificial layer assisted inside-out femtosecond laser deep scribing technology is effective and universal, holding great promise for producing micro/nanostructured optical devices. Femtosecond laser machining of biomimetic micro/nanostructures with high aspect ratio (larger than 10) on ultrahard materials, such as sapphire, is a challenging task, because the uncontrollable surface damage usually results in poor surface structures, especially for deep scribing. Here, we report an inside-out femtosecond laser deep scribing technology in combination with etching process for fabricating bio-inspired micro/nanostructures with high-aspect-ratio on sapphire. To effectively avoid the uncontrollable damage at the solid/air interface, a sacrificial layer of silicon oxide was employed for surface protection. High-quality microstructures with an aspect ratio as high as 80:1 have been fabricated on sapphire surface. As a proof-of-concept application, we produced a moth-eye inspired antireflective window with sub-wavelength pyramid arrays on sapphire surface, by which broadband (3–5 μm) and high transmittance (98% at 4 μm, the best results reported so far) have been achieved. The sacrificial layer assisted inside-out femtosecond laser deep scribing technology is effective and universal, holding great promise for producing micro/nanostructured optical devices.
Dual-plane coupled phase retrieval for non-prior holographic imaging
Zhengzhong Huang, Pasquale Memmolo, Pietro Ferraro, Liangcai Cao
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-021-00046-w
摘要:
Accurate depiction of waves in temporal and spatial is essential to the investigation of interactions between physical objects and waves. Digital holography (DH) can perform quantitative analysis of wave–matter interactions. Full detector-bandwidth reconstruction can be realized based on in-line DH. But the overlapping of twin images strongly prevents quantitative analysis. For off-axis DH, the object wave and the detector bandwidth need to satisfy certain conditions to perform reconstruction accurately. Here, we present a reliable approach involving a coupled configuration for combining two in-line holograms and one off-axis hologram, using a rapidly converging iterative procedure based on two-plane coupled phase retrieval (TwPCPR) method. It realizes a fast-convergence holographic calculation method. High-resolution and full-field reconstruction by exploiting the full bandwidth are demonstrated for complex-amplitude reconstruction. Off-axis optimization phase provides an effective initial guess to avoid stagnation and minimize the required measurements of multi-plane phase retrieval. The proposed strategy works well for more extended samples without any prior assumptions of the objects including support, non-negative, sparse constraints, etc. It helps to enhance and empower applications in wavefront sensing, computational microscopy and biological tissue analysis. Accurate depiction of waves in temporal and spatial is essential to the investigation of interactions between physical objects and waves. Digital holography (DH) can perform quantitative analysis of wave–matter interactions. Full detector-bandwidth reconstruction can be realized based on in-line DH. But the overlapping of twin images strongly prevents quantitative analysis. For off-axis DH, the object wave and the detector bandwidth need to satisfy certain conditions to perform reconstruction accurately. Here, we present a reliable approach involving a coupled configuration for combining two in-line holograms and one off-axis hologram, using a rapidly converging iterative procedure based on two-plane coupled phase retrieval (TwPCPR) method. It realizes a fast-convergence holographic calculation method. High-resolution and full-field reconstruction by exploiting the full bandwidth are demonstrated for complex-amplitude reconstruction. Off-axis optimization phase provides an effective initial guess to avoid stagnation and minimize the required measurements of multi-plane phase retrieval. The proposed strategy works well for more extended samples without any prior assumptions of the objects including support, non-negative, sparse constraints, etc. It helps to enhance and empower applications in wavefront sensing, computational microscopy and biological tissue analysis.
Correction to: The challenges of modern computing and new opportunities for optics
Chong Li, Xiang Zhang, Jingwei Li, Tao Fang, Xiaowen Dong
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-021-00045-x
摘要:
Intelligent optoelectronic processor for orbital angular momentum spectrum measurement
Hao Wang, Ziyu Zhan, Futai Hu, Yuan Meng, Zeqi Liu, Xing Fu, Qiang Liu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-022-00079-9
摘要:
Photonic-chip-based dense entanglement distribution
Shang-Yu Ren, Wei-Qiang Wang, Yu-Jie Cheng, Long Huang, Bing-Zheng Du, Wei Zhao, Guang-Can Guo, Lan-Tian Feng, Wen-Fu Zhang, Xi-Feng Ren
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00089-1
摘要:
350-2500 nm supercontinuum white laser enabled by synergic high-harmonic generation and self-phase modulation
Lihong Hong, Chenyang Hu, Yuanyuan Liu, Huijun He, Liqiang Liu, Zhiyi Wei, Zhi-Yuan Li
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00088-2
摘要:
Different channels to transmit information in scattering media
Xuyu Zhang, Jingjing Gao, Yu Gan, Chunyuan Song, Dawei Zhang, Songlin Zhuang, Shensheng Han, Puxiang Lai, Honglin Liu
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00087-3
摘要:
On-chip optical sources of 3D photonic integration based on active fluorescent polymer waveguide microdisks for light display application
Chunxue Wang, Daming Zhang, Jian Yue, Hang Lin, Xucheng Zhang, Tong Zhang, Changming Chen, Teng Fei
, doi: 10.1186/s43074-023-00090-8
摘要: